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Houston, TX, United States

Hou J.K.,Center for Innovations in Quality | Hou J.K.,Baylor College of Medicine | Imler T.D.,Indiana University | Imler T.D.,Regenstrief Institute Inc. | Imperiale T.F.,Indiana University
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Natural language processing (NLP) is a technology that uses computer-based linguistics and artificial intelligence to identify and extract information from free-text data sources such as progress notes, procedure and pathology reports, and laboratory and radiologic test results. With the creation of large databases and the trajectory of health care reform, NLP holds the promise of enhancing the availability, quality, and utility of clinical information with the goal of improving documentation, quality, and efficiency of health care in the United States. To date, NLP has shown promise in automatically determining appropriate colonoscopy intervals and identifying cases of inflammatory bowel disease from electronic health records. The objectives of this review are to provide background on NLP and its associated terminology, to describe how NLP has been used thus far in the field of digestive diseases, and to identify its potential future uses. © 2014 AGA Institute. Source

Stier E.A.,Boston Medical Center | Sebring M.C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Mendez A.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | Ba F.S.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

The aim of this study was to systematically review the findings of publications addressing the epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in women. We conducted a systematic review among publications published from Jan. 1, 1997, to Sept. 30, 2013, to limit to publications from the combined antiretroviral therapy era. Three searches were performed of the National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the following search terms: women and anal HPV, women anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women and anal cancer. Publications were included in the review if they addressed any of the following outcomes: (1) prevalence, incidence, or clearance of anal HPV infection, (2) prevalence of anal cytological or histological neoplastic abnormalities, or (3) incidence or risk of anal cancer. Thirty-seven publications addressing anal HPV infection and anal cytology remained after applying selection criteria, and 23 anal cancer publications met the selection criteria. Among HIV-positive women, the prevalence of high-risk (HR)-HPV in the anus was 16-85%. Among HIV-negative women, the prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection ranged from 4% to 86%. The prevalence of anal HR-HPV in HIV-negative women with HPV-related pathology of the vulva, vagina, and cervix compared with women with no known HPV-related pathology, varied from 23% to 86% and from 5% to 22%, respectively. Histological anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater) was found in 3-26% of the women living with HIV, 0-9% among women with lower genital tract pathology, and 0-3% for women who are HIV negative without known lower genital tract pathology. The incidence of anal cancer among HIV-infected women ranged from 3.9 to 30 per 100,000. Among women with a history of cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, the incidence rates of anal cancer ranged from 0.8 to 63.8 per 100,000 person-years, and in the general population, the incidence rates ranged from 0.55 to 2.4 per 100,000 person-years. This review provides evidence that anal HPV infection and dysplasia are common in women, especially in those who are HIV positive or have a history of HPV-related lower genital tract pathology. The incidence of anal cancer continues to grow in all women, especially those living with HIV, despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Zevallos J.P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Hartman C.M.,Center for Innovations in Quality | Kramer J.R.,Center for Innovations in Quality | Kramer J.R.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 3 more authors.

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in the last several decades and may represent either a true increase in the number of cases or increased screening. The objective of this study was to examine thyroid cancer incidence and the use of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) screening in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of thyroid cancer would correspond to increases in the use of these diagnostic modalities. METHODS: This was a multi-year, cross-sectional study using VA administrative data from 2000 to 2012. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify trends in thyroid cancer incidence and the use of thyroid ultrasound and FNA. RESULTS: An increase in thyroid cancer incidence occurred from 10.3 per 100,000 individuals in 2000 to 21.5 per 100,000 individuals in 2012. The rate of thyroid ultrasound use increased from 125.6 per 100,000 individuals in 2001 to 572.1 per 100,000 individuals in 2012, and the rate of thyroid FNA use increased from 7.0 per 100,000 individuals in 2000 to 46.2 per 100,000 individuals in 2012. A statistically significant increase in thyroid cancer incidence between 2000 and 2008 (annual percent change [APC], 3.81; P< .05) was followed by a more pronounced increase between 2008 and 2012 (APC, 10.32; P< .05). A simultaneous increase in the use of thyroid ultrasound occurred between 2002 and 2012 (APC, 15.48; P< .05) and the use of thyroid FNA between 2000 and 2012 (APC, 18.36; P< .05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of thyroid cancer doubled, a nearly 5-fold increase in the use of thyroid ultrasound and a nearly 7-fold increase in the use of thyroid FNA occurred between 2000 and 2012. These findings suggest that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence may be related to increases in the use of thyroid ultrasound and FNA. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source

Choi N.G.,University of Texas at Austin | Marti C.N.,University of Texas at Austin | Bruce M.L.,Cornell College | Wilson N.L.,Center for Innovations in Quality | And 3 more authors.
Depression and Anxiety

Background: Despite their high rates of depression, homebound older adults have limited access to evidence-based psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to report both depression and disability outcomes of telehealth problem-solving therapy (tele-PST via Skype video call) for low-income homebound older adults over 6 months postintervention. Methods: A 3-arm randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of tele-PST to in-person PST and telephone care calls with 158 homebound individuals who were aged 50+ and scored 15+ on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Treatment effects on depression severity (HAMD score) and disability (score on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS]) were analyzed using mixed-effects regression with random intercept models. Possible reciprocal relationships between depression and disability were examined with a parallel-process latent growth curve model. Results: Both tele-PST and in-person PST were efficacious treatments for low-income homebound older adults; however the effects of tele-PST on both depression and disability outcomes were sustained significantly longer than those of in-person PST. Effect sizes (dGMA-raw) for HAMD score changes at 36 weeks were 0.68 for tele-PST and 0.20 for in-person PST. Effect sizes for WHODAS score changes at 36 weeks were 0.47 for tele-PST and 0.25 for in-person PST. The results also supported reciprocal and indirect effects between depression and disability outcomes. Conclusions: The efficacy and potential low cost of tele-delivered psychotherapy show its potential for easy replication and sustainability to reach a large number of underserved older adults and improve their access to mental health services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Nguyen T.H.,Center for Innovations in Quality | Thrift A.P.,Baylor College of Medicine | Ramsey D.,Center for Innovations in Quality | Green L.,Michael bakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology

OBJECTIVES:Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more common among non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) than African Americans (AAs). It is unclear whether its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), is also less common among AAs, and whether differences in risk factor profiles explain the racial disparity.METHODS:Data were from a case-control study among eligible Veterans Affairs patients scheduled for an upper endoscopy, and a sample identified from primary care clinics. Participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical factors and underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We calculated race-specific BE prevalence rates and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for BE.RESULTS:There were 301 BE cases and 1,651 controls. BE prevalence was significantly higher among NHWs than AAs (21.3 vs. 5.0%; P<0.001). NHWs were more likely than AAs to be male, have a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), hiatal hernia, and use proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), but less likely to have Helicobacter pylori (P<0.001). Among cases, NHWs were more likely to have long-segment BE and dysplasia than AAs. Independent BE risk factors for AAs included a hiatus hernia ≥3 cm (OR 4.12; 95% CI, 1.57-10.81) and a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease or PPI use (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.40-9.78), whereas high WHR (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.41-5.63), hiatus hernia ≥3 cm (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 3.05-8.03), PPI use (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33-2.66), and H. pylori (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.99) were statistically significantly associated with BE risk for NHWs. Among all cases and controls, race was a risk factor for BE, independent of other BE risk factors (OR for AAs, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.17-0.38).CONCLUSIONS:Among veterans, the prevalence of BE was lower in AAs compared with NHWs. This disparity was not accounted for by differences in risk estimates or prevalence of risk factors between NHWs and AAs. © 2014 by the American College of Gastroenterology. Source

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