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Winch P.,Social and Behavioral Interventions Program | Stepnitz R.,Center for Injury Research and Policy
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low-and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low-and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels. Source

Hu G.,Central South University | Baker S.P.,Center for Injury Research and Policy
Public Health Reports | Year: 2012

Objective. We sought to explain the recent increase in the death rate from falls among Americans aged 65 years and older. Methods. Using the CDC WONDER online database, a longitudinal analysis of subgroups of fall mortality based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) was conducted in older adults and in younger people. We used linear regression to examine the statistical significance of trends in mortality rates during 1999-2007. Results. The overall mortality rate from falls increased by 55% among older Americans (≥65 years of age) during 1999-2007, from 29 per 100,000 population to 45 per 100,000 population. For those aged ≥65 years, the largest increase by far (698%) occurred in the subgroup "other falls on the same level," followed by a moderate increase in falls involving wheelchairs or furniture (48%). The steepest increases at all ages occurred from 1999 to 2000, after ICD-10 took effect. State-level analysis confirmed the findings for the entire United States. From 1999 to 2007, total mortality from falls decreased by 5% in people younger than 45 years of age and increased by 44% for those aged 45-64 years; mortality from "other falls on the same level" increased by 202% and 431%, respectively, in these age groups. Conclusions. Because the reported minor increases in emergency department and hospitalization rates for falls were insignificant, the almost sevenfold increase in death rates from "other falls on the same level" strongly suggests an effect of improved reporting quality. © 2012 Association of Schools of Public Health. Source

Baker S.P.,Center for Injury Research and Policy | Li G.,Columbia University
Epidemiologic Reviews | Year: 2012

This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive strategies; comment on the individual articles included in this volume in the broad categories of research methods, childhood injury, motor-vehicle-related injury, alcohol-related injury, intentional injury, and occupational injury; and outline research gaps and future directions in injury epidemiology and prevention. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. Source

Hu G.,Central South University | Baker S.P.,Center for Injury Research and Policy
Injury Prevention | Year: 2010

Objective To identify recent increases in mortality and morbidity rates from injuries among Americans aged 65 years and over. Design A longitudinal analysis of mortality and morbidity data on injuries in the elderly, examining variations in recent trends by cause, sex, race/ethnicity and age group. Setting USA, mortality rate (2000-6) and morbidity rate (2001-7). Data sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's web-based injury statistics query and reporting system online database. Main outcome measures Linear regression was used to examine the statistical significance of trends in mortality and morbidity rates in the study period. The percentage change in rates was used to measure the linear trend. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic (all races except black), non-Hispanic white ('white') and black. Results Injury mortality for people aged 65 years and over increased by 3% during 2000-6; morbidity increased by 7% during 2001-7. Falls mortality increased by 42% but emergency department visits for falls did not increase. Significant increases in death rates occurred in motorcycle crashes (145%), machinery (46%), poisoning (34%) and drowning (19%); morbidity rates increased in poisoning (143%), motorcycle crashes (86%), machinery (48%), bicycles (24%), struck by/against (13%) and overexertion (11%). Motor vehicle occupant injuries decreased. Conclusions The reported rate of fatal falls for people aged 65 years and over increased by 42% during 2000-6 but non-fatal falls did not increase. Research is needed to explain the inconsistent changes between fatal and non-fatal falls, and to identify risk factors contributing to the significant increases in both fatal and non-fatal injuries from machinery, motorcycle crashes and unintentional poisoning. Source

Frattaroli S.,Center for Injury Research and Policy
Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action | Year: 2010

Communities across the United States are using street outreach workers (SWs) to prevent violence. SW programs are generally recognized as a promising model, particularly in light of a 2008 evaluation that demonstrated positive impacts associated with one well-known program. The United Teen Equality Center (UTEC) includes an SW program. Through this paper we aim to (1) document the work of the UTEC SWs, (2) describe UTEC's approach to training SWs and managing the program, and (3) understand interviewees' perspectives (including UTEC managers, SWs and partners) on how the SWs impact youth violence in Lowell. We designed a single-site observational study using qualitative methods to address our study aims. We collected data from in-person, semistructured interviews with the two UTEC SW program managers, the six SWs employed during the study period, and 17 representatives from partner agencies. UTEC SWs outreach to youth, respond to crises in the lives of youth as opportunity, work to facilitate access to resources for youth, and engage in intensive follow-up with youth when needed. These findings are consistent with UTEC's pyramid model of SW outreach. The program emphasizes peacemaking (not only preventing violence) and partnerships as priorities. SWs participate in structured training, receive a comprehensive benefits package, and have opportunities for professional development. Several aspects of UTEC's program may be useful for other SW programs: Involve youth in hiring SWs, invest in SW training, incorporate peacemaking strategies into outreach, and partner with agencies that also serve youth. Source

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