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De Haas H.J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | De Haas H.J.,University of Groningen | Arbustini E.,Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases | Fuster V.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2014

In almost all cardiac diseases, an increase in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition or fibrosis occurs, mostly consisting of collagen I. Whereas replacement fibrosis follows cardiomyocyte loss in myocardial infarction, reactive fibrosis is triggered by myocardial stress or inflammatory mediators and often results in ventricular stiffening, functional deterioration, and development of heart failure. Given the importance of ECM deposition in cardiac disease, ECM imaging could be a valuable clinical tool. Molecular imaging of ECM may help understand pathology, evaluate impact of novel therapy, and may eventually find a role in predicting the extent of ECM expansion and development of personalized treatment. In the current review, we provide an overview of ECM imaging including the assessment of ECM volume and molecular targeting of key players involved in ECM deposition and degradation. The targets comprise myofibroblasts, intracardiac renin-angiotensin axis, matrix metalloproteinases, and matricellular proteins. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.


Yahagi K.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Davis H.R.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Arbustini E.,Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases | Virmani R.,CVPath Institute Inc.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most frequent cause of death in both men and women. Many studies on CVD have included mostly men, and the knowledge about coronary artery disease (CAD) in women has largely been extrapolated from studies primarily focused on men. The influence of various risk factors is different between men and women; untoward effects of smoking of CAD are greater in women than men. Furthermore, the effect of the menopause is important in women, with higher incidence of plaque erosion in young women versus greater incidence of plaque rupture in older women. This review focuses on differences in plaque morphology in men and women presenting with sudden coronary death and acute myocardial infarction. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Disertori M.,Santa Chiara Hospital | Disertori M.,Healthcare Research and Innovation Program | Mase M.,University of Trento | Marini M.,Santa Chiara Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology | Year: 2014

Evaluation of the Substrate in Genetic Atrial Arrhythmias. Introduction: Although atrial arrhythmiasmay have genetic causes, very few data are available on evaluation of the arrhythmic substrate in genetic atrial diseases in humans. In this study, we evaluate the nature and evolution of the atrial arrhythmic substrate in a genetic atrial cardiomyopathy.Methods and Results: Repeated electroanatomic mapping and tomographic evaluations were used to investigate the evolving arrhythmic substrate in 5 patients with isolated arrhythmogenic atrial cardiomyopathy, caused by Natriuretic Peptide Precursor A (NPPA) gene mutation. Atrial fibrosis was assessed using late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI). The substrate of atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF) was biatrial dilatation with patchy areas of low voltage and atrial wall scarring (in the right atrium: 68.5%±6.0% and 22.2%±10.2%, respectively). The evolution of the arrhythmic patterns to sinus node disease with atrial standstill (AS) was associated with giant atria with extensive low voltage and atrial scarring areas (in the right atrium: 99.5% ± 0.7% and 57.5% ± 33.2%, respectively). LGE-MRI-proven biatrial fibrosis (Utah stage IV) was associated with AS. Atrial conduction was slow and heterogeneous, with lines of conduction blocks. The progressive extension and spatial distribution of the scarring/fibrosis were strictly associated with the different types of arrhythmias.Conclusion: The evolution of the amount and distribution of atrial scarring/fibrosis constitutes the structural substrate for the different types of atrial arrhythmias in a pure genetic model of arrhythmogenic atrial cardiomyopathy.


Zaragoza M.V.,University of California at Irvine | Brandon M.C.,University of California at Irvine | Diegoli M.,University of California at Irvine | Arbustini E.,University of California at Irvine | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leading to mitochondrial dysfunction can cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Owing to a high mutation rate, mtDNA defects may occur at any nucleotide in its 16 569 bp sequence. Complete mtDNA sequencing may detect pathogenic mutations, which can be difficult to interpret because of normal ethnic/geographic-associated haplogroup variation. Our goal is to show how to identify candidate mtDNA mutations by sorting out polymorphisms using readily available online tools. The purpose of this approach is to help investigators in prioritizing mtDNA variants for functional analysis to establish pathogenicity. We analyzed complete mtDNA sequences from 29 Italian patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy or suspected disease. Using MITOMASTER and PhyloTree, we characterized 593 substitution variants by haplogroup and allele frequencies to identify all novel, non-haplogroup-associated variants. MITOMASTER permitted determination of each variant's location, amino acid change and evolutionary conservation. We found that 98% of variants were common or rare, haplogroup-associated variants, and thus unlikely to be primary cause in 80% of cases. Six variants were novel, non-haplogroup variants and thus possible contributors to disease etiology. Two with the greatest pathogenic potential were heteroplasmic, nonsynonymous variants: m.15132T>C in MT-CYB for a patient with hypertrophic dilated cardiomyopathy and m.6570GT in MT-CO1 for a patient with myopathy. In summary, we have used our automated information system, MITOMASTER, to make a preliminary distinction between normal mtDNA variation and pathogenic mutations in patient samples; this fast and easy approach allowed us to select the variants for traditional analysis to establish pathogenicity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Borroni R.G.,Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia | Year: 2014

Different responses, in terms both of efficacy and toxicity, are commonly observed for any drug administered to apparently homogeneous groups of patients. It is estimated that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause 3-6% of all hospitalizations, accounting for 5% to 9% of hospital admission costs. The skin is often involved in ADRs and although most cutaneous ADRs have a favorable course, they may present as severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (also referred to as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. SCARs are associated with significant mortality and require prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment Pharmacogenetics studies individual variants in the DNA sequence associated with drug efficacy and toxicity, allowing prescription of a drug to patients expected to benefit from it, and excluding from treatment those who are at risk of developing ADRs. Pharmacogenetics already achieved several important results in the prevention of SCARs, and pharmacogenetic testing is now recommended by regulatory agencies before administration of abacavir and carbamazepine, leading to reduced incidence of SCARs. In this review, the pharmacogenetic associations of SCARs that have been validated in independent, case-control association studies will be presented. By familiarizing with principles of pharmacogenetics, dermatologists should be able to correlate specific cutaneous ADR phenotypes to the underlying genotype, thus contributing to better drug safety and facilitating drug discovery, development and approval.

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