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Morandini M.,Center for Communication and Information Technology | Perini A.,Center for Communication and Information Technology | Penserini L.,Center for Communication and Information Technology | Marchetto A.,Center for Communication and Information Technology
Requirements Engineering | Year: 2015

The increasing demand for complex and distributed software calls for novel software engineering methods and techniques, to create systems able to autonomously adapt to dynamically changing situations. In this paper, we present a framework for engineering requirements for adaptive software systems. The approach, called Tropos4AS, combines goal-oriented concepts and high-variability design methods.The Tropos4AS requirements model can be directly mapped to software prototypes with an agent-oriented architecture which can be executed for requirements validation and refinement. We give a comprehensive description of the framework, with conceptual models, modelling guidelines, and supporting tools. The applicability of the framework to requirements validation and refinement is illustrated through a case study. Two controlled experiments with subjects provide an empirical evaluation of the proposed modelling language, with statistical evidence of the effectiveness of the modelling approach for gathering requirements of adaptive systems. © 2015 Springer-Verlag London


Busono P.,Center for Communication and Information Technology
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

A method for fabrication of a disposable amperometric biosensor for determination of creatinine concentration was developed. An enzyme ink was prepared by mixing of 10 mM CaCl2, 1 wt% PEG-400, 4 wt% Cabosil and wt% Hydroxyethyl Celluose (HEC) and added with creatinine amidohydrolase, creatine amidinohydrolase, sarcosine oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase. The enzyme ink was then printed on the surface of working electrode. Electropolymerization of pyroll was conducted on the surface of working electrode to prevent the enzyme deteriorate. The resulting biosensor was characterized using cyclic voltametry. Enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide has amperometrically been detected at a carbon-working electrode. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated using standard creatinine. The biosensors have a linear detection range of 0.5×10-5 - 1.0 × 10-3 M with response time of 40 s. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 65 mV/pA. The detection limit of the biosensor is 50 µM. The biosensor works at optimum pH and temperature of 7.25 and 340C, respectively at buffer concentration of 50 mM. The biosensor shows a good stability over a period of 1 months, which is only decreasing to 80% of its initial activity. The influence of the interfering ascorbic acid and uric acid on the biosensor shows a little effect on its performance. The biosensor had been compared with the measurement conducted with spectrometry techniques. A good agreement was observed between both the measurements. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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