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Östermalm, Sweden

Gredmark-Russ S.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Soderberg-Naucler C.,Karolinska Institutet
Virulence | Year: 2012

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus family, establishes life-long persistence and latency after primary infection and can be reactivated later in life. In immunosuppressed patients, it is an important pathogen that can cause severe disease. HCMV is also thought to play a causative role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The virus can infect different immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and can take advantage of host immune functions to avoid immune recognition. These characteristics have sparked major interest in understanding HCMV and its interaction with immune cells and their relevance to disease pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on the complex host-pathogen relationship between HCMV and DCs, including the persistence of the virus in these cells, their function in the immune response to HCMV infection and the potential clinical consequences of HCMV infection in DCs. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Bachle S.M.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Malone D.F.G.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Buggert M.,Karolinska Institutet | Buggert M.,University of Pennsylvania | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency and activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and natural killer (NK) cells among HIV-1, HIV-2, or dually HIV-1/HIV-2 (HIV-D)-infected individuals, in relation to markers of disease progression. Design: Whole blood samples were collected from treatment-naive HIV-1 (n = 23), HIV-2 (n = 34), and HIV-D (n = 11) infected individuals, as well as HIV-seronegative controls (n = 25), belonging to an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Frequencies and activation levels of iNKT and NK cell subsets were analysed using multicolour flow cytometry, and results were related to HIV-status, CD4 + T-cell levels, viral load, and T-cell activation. Results: HIV-1, HIV-D, and viremic HIV-2 individuals had lower numbers of CD4 + iNKT cells in circulation compared with seronegative controls. Numbers of CD56 bright NK cells were also reduced in HIV-infected individuals as compared with control study participants. Notably, iNKT cell and NK cell activation levels, assessed by CD38 expression, were increased in HIV-1 and HIV-2 single, as well as dual, infections. HIV-2 viremia was associated with elevated activation levels in CD4 + iNKT cells, CD56 bright, and CD56 dim NK cells, as compared with aviremic HIV-2 infection. Additionally, disease markers such as CD4 + T-cell percentages, viral load, and CD4 + T-cell activation were associated with CD38 expression levels of both iNKT and NK cells, which activation levels also correlated with each other. Conclusion: Our data indicate that elevated levels of iNKT-cell and NK-cell activation are associated with viremia and disease progression markers in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. © Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Marshall M.R.,Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine | Marshall M.R.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Pattu V.,Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine | Halimani M.,Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminate infected and neoplastic cells through directed release of cytotoxic granule contents. Although multiple SNARE proteins have been implicated in cytotoxic granule exocytosis, the role of vesicular SNARE proteins, i.e., vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs), remains enigmatic. VAMP8 was posited to represent the cytotoxic granule vesicular SNARE protein mediating exocytosis in mice. In primary human CTLs, however, VAMP8 colocalized with Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes. Upon stimulation, these endosomes rapidly trafficked to and fused with the plasma membrane, preceding fusion of cytotoxic granules. Knockdown of VAMP8 blocked both recycling endosome and cytotoxic granule fusion at immune synapses, without affecting activating signaling. Mechanistically, VAMP8-dependent recycling endosomes deposited syntaxin-11 at immune synapses, facilitating assembly of plasma membrane SNARE complexes for cytotoxic granule fusion. Hence, cytotoxic granule exocytosis is a sequential, multivesicle fusion process requiring VAMP8-mediated recycling endosome fusion before cytotoxic granule fusion. Our findings imply that secretory granule exocytosis pathways in other cell types may also be more complex than previously appreciated. © 2015 Bryceson. Source

Gujer C.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Sandgren K.J.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Douagi I.,Karolinska Institutet | Adams W.C.,Center for Infectious Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2011

The development and quality of a humoral immune response are largely influenced by the environment that supports the activation of naïve B cells. Human PDCs, through their unique capacity to produce high levels of IFN-α, have been shown earlier to enhance B cell responses stimulated by selected TLR ligands. In this study, we investigated whether PDCs also promote B cell activation induced by Th cell interactions and BCR ligation. Sorted human naive CD19+ CD27- B cells were activated in vitro with anti-Ig and irradiated CD4+ T cells. Under these conditions, the presence of superna-tants from TLR-stimulated PDCs increased B cell proliferation, the frequency of B cells that differentiated to CD27high CD38high cells, and secretion of IgM. Similar results were observed when the B cells were activated in the presence of purified IFN-α. In contrast, superna-tants from stimulated MDCs did not augment these functions. Also, IFN-α treatment of B cells up-regulated the expression of costimulatory molecule CD86 but not CD40, CD80, MHC class II, or CD25. Although direct IFN-α exposure of T cells suppressed their proliferative capacity, IFN-α treatment of B cells led to a small increase in their capacity to induce superantigen-driven activation of autologous CD4+ T cells. In summary, PDCs, via their production of IFN-α, may render B cells more responsive to T cell contact, which in turn, facilitates B cell proliferation and differentiation to antibody-producing cells. © Society for Leukocyte Biology. Source

Schulte T.,Center for Infectious Medicine | Lofling J.,Karolinska Institutet | Lofling J.,Karolinska University Hospital | Mikaelsson C.,Center for Infectious Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Open Biology | Year: 2014

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, and a leading cause of disease and death worldwide. Pneumococcal invasive disease is triggered by initial asymptomatic colonization of the human upper respiratory tract. The pneu-mococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a lung-specific virulence factor whose functional binding region (BR) binds to keratin-10 (KRT10) and promotes pneumococcal biofilm formation through self-oligomerization. We present the crystal structure of the KRT10-binding domain of PsrP (BR 187-385) determined to 2.0 Å resolution. BR187-385 adopts a novel variant of the DEv-IgG fold, typical for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules adhe-sins, despite very low sequence identity. An extended β-sheet on one side of the compressed, two-sided barrel presents a basic groove that possibly binds to the acidic helical rod domain of KRT10. Our study also demonstrates the importance of the other side of the barrel, formed by extensive well-ordered loops and stabilized by short β-strands, for interaction with KRT10. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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