Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services

Westmead, Australia

Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services

Westmead, Australia
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Chakrabarti A.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Chakrabarti A.,ADVANCE Medical | Sood P.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Rudramurthy S.M.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | And 28 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: A systematic epidemiological study on intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired candidemia across India.Method: A prospective, nationwide, multicentric, observational study was conducted at 27 Indian ICUs. Consecutive patients who acquired candidemia after ICU admission were enrolled during April 2011 through September 2012. Clinical and laboratory variables of these patients were recorded. The present study is an analysis of data specific for adult patients.Results: Among 1,400 ICU-acquired candidemia cases (overall incidence of 6.51 cases/1,000 ICU admission), 65.2 % were adult. Though the study confirmed the already known risk factors for candidemia, the acquisition occurred early after admission to ICU (median 8 days; interquartile range 4–15 days), even infecting patients with lower APACHE II score at admission (median 17.0; mean ± SD 17.2 ± 5.9; interquartile range 14–20). The important finding of the study was the vast spectrum of agents (31 Candida species) causing candidemia and a high rate of isolation of Candida tropicalis (41.6 %). Azole and multidrug resistance were seen in 11.8 and 1.9 % of isolates. Public sector hospitals reported a significantly higher presence of the relatively resistant C. auris (8.2 vs. 3.9 %; p = 0.008) and C. rugosa (5.6 vs. 1.5 %; p = 0.001). The 30-day crude and attributable mortality rates of candidemia patients were 44.7 and 19.6 %, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent predictors of mortality including admission to public sector hospital, APACHE II score at admission, underlying renal failure, central venous catheterization and steroid therapy.Conclusion: The study highlighted a high burden of candidemia in Indian ICUs, early onset after ICU admission, higher risk despite less severe physiology score at admission and a vast spectrum of agents causing the disease with predominance of C. tropicalis. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM.


Fleming S.,Alfred Health | Yannakou C.K.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Haeusler G.M.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Haeusler G.M.,Monash Childrens Hospital | And 23 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

There is a strong argument for the use of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk patients given the significant mortality associated with invasive fungal disease, the late identification of these infections, and the availability of safe and well-tolerated prophylactic medications. Clinical decisions about which patients should receive prophylaxis and choice of antifungal agent should be guided by risk stratification, knowledge of local fungal epidemiology, the efficacy and tolerability profile of available agents, and estimates such as number needed to treat and number needed to harm. There have been substantial changes in practice since the 2008 guidelines were published. These include the availability of new medications and/or formulations, and a focus on refining and simplifying patient risk stratification. Used in context, these guidelines aim to assist clinicians in providing optimal preventive care to this vulnerable patient demographic. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


Morrissey C.O.,Monash University | Morrissey C.O.,Alfred Health | Gilroy N.M.,St Vincents Hospital | Macesic N.,Austin Health | And 21 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy for haematological malignancy. Much of these adverse outcomes are due to the limited ability of traditional diagnostic tests (i.e. culture and histology) to make an early and accurate diagnosis. As persistent or recurrent fevers of unknown origin (PFUO) in neutropenic patients despite broad-spectrum antibiotics have been associated with the development of IFD, most centres have traditionally administered empiric antifungal therapy (EAFT) to patients with PFUO. However, use of an EAFT strategy has not been shown to have an overall survival benefit and is associated with excessive antifungal therapy use. As a result, the focus has shifted to developing more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early and more targeted antifungal treatment. These tests, including the galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have enabled the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment (DDAT) strategies, which have been shown to be safe and feasible, reducing antifungal usage. In addition, the development of effective antifungal prophylactic strategies has changed the landscape in terms of the incidence and types of IFD that clinicians have encountered. In this review, we examine the current role of EAFT and provide up-to-date data on the newer diagnostic tests and algorithms available for use in EAFT and DDAT strategies, within the context of patient risk and type of antifungal prophylaxis used. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


Cooley L.,Royal Hobart Hospital | Dendle C.,Monash Medical Center | Dendle C.,Monash University | Wolf J.,St Jude Childrens Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

Pneumocystis jirovecii infection (PJP) is a common cause of pneumonia in patients with cancer-related immunosuppression. There are well-defined patients who are at risk of PJP due to the status of their underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression and/or concomitant use of corticosteroids. Prophylaxis is highly effective and should be given to all patients at moderate to high risk of PJP. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment, although several alternative agents are available. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


Chen S.C.,Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services | Chen S.C.,Westmead Hospital | Chen S.C.,University of Sydney | Sorrell T.C.,University of Sydney | And 11 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

Pathogenic yeast forms are commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host, including patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Yeasts include the Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii and some lesser-known pathogens. Candida species remain the most common cause of invasive yeast infections (and the most common human pathogenic fungi). These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of established, invasive yeast infections in adult and paediatric patients in the haematology/oncology setting. Consideration is also given to the critically ill patient in intensive care units, including the neonatal intensive care unit. Evidence for 'pre-emptive' or 'diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy' is also discussed. For the purposes of this paper, invasive yeast diseases are categorised under the headings of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis and uncommon yeast infections. Specific recommendations for the management of Pneumocystis jirovecii are presented in an accompanying article (see consensus guidelines by Cooley etal. appearing elsewhere in this supplement). © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


Slavin M.A.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Slavin M.A.,The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Slavin M.A.,University of Melbourne | Thursky K.A.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | And 16 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

This article introduces the second revision of the Australian andNewZealand consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting. The current update occurs within the context of a growing population at risk of invasive fungal disease, improved understanding of risk factors, availability of new diagnostic tests, a much-expanded evidence base and changing clinical paradigms. Here, we provide an overview of the history and purpose of the guidelines, including changes in scope since the last clinical update was published in 2008. The process for development, and for enabling review of draft recommendations by end-users and other relevant stakeholders, is described. The approach to assigning levels of evidence and grades of recommendation is also provided, along with a comparison to international grading systems. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


van Hal S.J.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Gilroy N.M.,St Vincents Hospital | Morrissey C.O.,Monash University | Morrissey C.O.,Alfred Health | And 14 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2014

This article reports the findings of a survey developed to assess the current use of antifungal prophylaxis among haematology and infectious disease clinicians across Australia and New Zealand, and their alignment with existing consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting (published 2008). Surveyed clinicians largely followed the current recommendations for prophylaxis in the setting of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia, as well as autologous and low-risk allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In keeping with guideline recommendations, posaconazole was the agent used by most centres for high-risk allogeneic HSCT. However, its routine continuation for 75-100 days post-transplantation without de-escalation suggested use beyond those indications described in the 2008 guidelines, namely pre-engraftment neutropenia and graft-versus-host disease. Variations in practice were observed in other settings, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, reflecting the general lack of evidence for antifungal prophylaxis in these patient populations and changing perceptions of risk. With regard to the availability of testing in cases of suspected breakthrough IFD, 40% of centres did not have access to investigative bronchoscopy within 48h of referral, and results of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), fungal polymerase chain reaction and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were not available within 48h in 83%, 90% and 85% of centres respectively. The survey's findings will influence the recommendations provided in the updated 2014 consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.


Hueston L.,Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services | Toi C.S.,Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services | Jeoffreys N.,Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services | Sorrell T.,Sydney Institute for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity | Gilbert G.,Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito borne (+) ssRNA alphavirus found only in Australia. It causes rash, myalgia and arthralgia in humans and is usually diagnosed serologically. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect BFV in an effort to improve diagnosis early in the course of infection. The limit of detection was 16 genome equivalents with a specificity of 100%. Fifty five serum samples from BFV-infected patients were tested by the PCR. 52 of 53 antibody-positive samples were PCR negative. Two culture-positive (neutralizing antibody negative) samples were positive on first round PCR, while one sample (IgM and neutralizing antibody strongly positive, IgG negative) was positive on second round PCR, suggesting that viral RNA is detectable and transiently present in early infection. PCR can provide results faster than culture, is capable of high throughput and by sequencing the PCR product strain variants can be characterized. © 2013 Hueston et al.

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