Center for Infectious Diseases
Center for Infectious Diseases
Chin B.S.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2017
During the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), transmissions between humans and primates resulted in multiple HIV lineages in humans. This evolution has been rapid, giving rise to a complex classification and allowing for worldwide spread and intermixing of subtypes, which has consequently led to dozens of circulating recombinant forms. In the Republic of Korea, 12,522 cases of HIV infection have been reported between 1985, when AIDS was first identified, and 2015. This review focuses on the evolution of HIV infection worldwide and the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HIV in Korea. © 2017 by The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases.
News Article | April 27, 2017
The University of San Francisco (USF) today announced the lineup of speakers and honorary degree recipients at the university’s eight commencement ceremonies, taking place Thursday, May 18 through Saturday, May 20. Over 2300 graduate and undergraduate students will participate in the ceremonies at St. Ignatius Church on USF’s main campus. Events will also be live-streamed via the university website (http://www.usfca.edu). Hailing from the front lines of real estate, medicine, academia, politics and the Catholic Church, commencement speakers and honorary degree recipients include: Renowned director and playwright Carey Perloff from San Francisco’s American Conservatory Theater and Maureen Orth, an award-winning journalist and education leader, will receive honorary degrees and address USF’s College of Arts and Sciences. California Attorney General Xavier Becerra will speak to USF School of Law graduates. All ceremonies are invitation only. Journalists interested in covering the commencement events at USF must register by contacting Jennifer Kriz at (415) 422-2697 or jkriz(at)usfca(dot)edu. Honorary Degree Recipient and Commencement Speaker: The Most Reverend Robert W. McElroy, Catholic Bishop of San Diego Named the sixth bishop of San Diego in 2015, Bishop Robert McElroy has served in parishes throughout California, and was appointed auxiliary bishop of San Francisco (2010-2015) by Pope Benedict XVI. In 2008, he served as the Lo Schiavo Chair in Catholic Social Thought at USF. McElroy is now the vice president of the California Catholic Conference and serves at the national conference of bishops. He is the author of two books: “The Search for an American Public Theology” and “Morality and American Foreign Policy.” A native San Franciscan, McElroy received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard College, and his master’s degree from Stanford University, both in American history. He also holds a licentiate in theology from the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, a doctorate in moral theology from the Gregorian University Rome, and a doctorate in political science from Stanford. Friday, May 19, 9 a.m. College of Arts and Sciences, undergraduate students for humanities and sciences Honorary Degree Recipient and Commencement Speaker: Karl W. Eikenberry, Ambassador and Lieutenant General, Retired, U.S. Army Karl W. Eikenberry, who served as the U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan from April 2009 to July 2011, is currently the Oksenberg-Rohlen Fellow and director of the U.S. Asia Security Initiative at the Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center. He is also a professor and faculty member at Stanford University’s FSI Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law (CDDRL), the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC) and The Europe Center. In addition to his work at Stanford, Eikenberry is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, where he co-directs the academy's multi-year project on civil wars, violence and international responses. He serves on multiple boards, including The Asia Foundation, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for International Relations and Politics, and the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, which aims to regenerate Afghanistan's traditional arts and historic areas. He also is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Academy of Diplomacy and the Council of American Ambassadors. Eikenberry is a graduate of the United States Military Academy and received master’s degrees from Harvard and Stanford universities. Friday, May 19, noon College of Arts and Sciences, undergraduate students for arts and social sciences Carey Perloff, an award-winning director and playwright, is celebrating her 25th and final year as artistic director of A.C.T., San Francisco’s largest theater company. Known for her innovative productions of classics and new works, Perloff has directed more than 50 productions at A.C.T. Perloff’s play Kinship premiered at the Théâtre de Paris in October 2014. Prior to A.C.T., Perloff was the artistic director of Classic Stage Company in New York and served on the faculty of the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University. Her memoir, “Beautiful Chaos: A Life in the Theater,” about her time at A.C.T., was published in 2015 and was excerpted by American Theatre Magazine. A recipient of France’s Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and the National Corporate Theatre Fund’s 2007 Artistic Achievement Award, Perloff received a B.A. Phi Beta Kappa in classics and comparative literature from Stanford University and was a Fulbright Fellow at the University of Oxford. Friday, May 19, 3 p.m. College of Arts and Sciences, graduate students Maureen Orth is an award-winning journalist, a special correspondent for Vanity Fair, and the founder of the Marina Orth Foundation, a nonprofit foundation that promotes advanced learning in technology, English and leadership for more than 8,000 students in Colombia. As one of the first female writers at Newsweek in the early 1970s, Orth went on to publish profiles in Vanity Fair on heads of state, business leaders and celebrities, as well as acclaimed investigative reports. She has been a contributing editor at Vogue, a network correspondent for NBC News, a senior editor for New York and New West magazines and a columnist for New York Woman. She is also a contributor to The New York Times, The Washington Post and The Los Angeles Times. For her commitment to the education and success of the youth of Colombia, Orth received the McCall-Pierpaoli Humanitarian Award from Refugees International in 2015. Orth has also published two books, the best selling “Vulgar Favors” about the murder of Gianni Versace and “The Importance of Being Famous: Behind the Scenes of the Celebrity Industrial Complex.” Orth attended San Francisco College for Women/Lone Mountain for two years and completed her bachelor’s degree in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. She earned a master’s degree in journalism and documentary film at the University of California, Los Angeles. Orth’s late husband, Tim Russert, received an honorary degree from USF in 2001. Friday, May 19, 6 p.m. School of Nursing and Health Professions Honorary Degree Recipient and Commencement Speaker: Rev. Jon D. Fuller, M.D., S.J., Physician, Center for Infectious Diseases and Associate Professor, Boston University School of Medicine Founding president of the National Catholic AIDS Network, Rev. Dr. Jon Fuller is the attending physician for the Center for Infectious Diseases in Boston and manages Boston Medical Center’s program for HIV/AIDS care. He also coordinates the Research Thursday AIDS Conference series. As a Jesuit priest, Fuller has focused on how HIV prevention approaches can be analyzed and supported from the context of Catholic moral theology and serves as a consultant to international Catholic development and relief agencies on HIV-related policies. He teaches at Boston University School of Medicine, Weston Jesuit School of Theology and Harvard Divinity School. Fuller attended medical school at the University of California, San Diego, and completed his residency training in family medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. He served on the University of San Francisco Board of Trustees from 2001 to 2010. Saturday, May 20, 9 a.m. School of Law Prior to being elected as California’s attorney general this year, Xavier Becerra was a member of the United States House of Representatives for California's 34th congressional district, representing downtown Los Angeles in Congress from 1993 to 2017. Becerra also served as a deputy attorney general in the California Department of Justice from 1987 to 1990, and the California State Assembly from 1990 to 1992. Born in Sacramento, Becerra is the son of working-class immigrants from Jalisco, Mexico. He attended the University of Salamanca in Salamanca, Spain from 1978 to 1979, and earned his B.A. in economics from Stanford University. He was the first in his family to graduate from college. Becerra received his J.D. from Stanford Law School in 1980. Saturday, May 20, noon School of Management, undergraduate students in business administration Honorary Degree Recipient and Commencement Speaker: Regina Benjamin, MD, MBA, Former U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Regina M. Benjamin served as the 18th United States surgeon general, appointed by President Barack Obama in July 2009. As surgeon general, Benjamin oversaw the operational command of 6,700 uniformed public health officers who promote and protect the health of Americans in locations around the world. She is the first chair of the National Prevention Council and a former associate dean for rural health at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine. She is also the past chair of the U.S. Federation of State Medical Boards. In 1995, Benjamin was the first physician under age 40 and the first African-American woman to be elected to the American Medical Association Board of Trustees. Prior to becoming surgeon general, Benjamin served patients at the rural health clinic she founded in Bayou La Batre, Alabama, keeping the clinic in operation despite damage inflicted by hurricanes George (1998) and Katrina (2005) and a devastating fire (2006). Benjamin earned a B.S. in chemistry from Xavier University of Louisiana, an M.D. degree from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and an M.B.A. from Tulane University. She attended Morehouse School of Medicine and completed her family medicine residency in Macon, Georgia. Saturday, May 20, 3 p.m. School of Management, graduate and professional students, Masagung Graduate School of Management Honorary Degree Recipient and Commencement Speaker: Mark Buell, President, San Francisco Recreation and Park Commission, Class of 1964 Mark Buell is a graduate of USF, a native San Franciscan and a decorated Vietnam veteran. Intrepid in the world of politics and philanthropy, Buell has spent 35 years in public and private real estate development. Buell was San Francisco’s first director of economic development under Joseph Alioto and later served as the first director of the Emeryville Redevelopment Agency from 1977 to 1985. He was a founding member and first president of the California Association for Local Economic Development and has served on the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission under Dianne Feinstein. Buell is active on the boards of many nonprofit organizations including the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, the San Francisco Conservation Corps, the Bolinas Museum and the Chez Panisse Foundation. About the University of San Francisco The University of San Francisco is located in the heart of one of the world’s most innovative and diverse cities and is home to a vibrant academic community of students and faculty who achieve excellence in their fields. Its diverse student body enjoys direct access to faculty, small classes, and outstanding opportunities in the city itself. USF is San Francisco’s first university, and its Jesuit Catholic mission helps ignite a student’s passion for social justice and a desire to “Change the World From Here.” For more information, visit usfca.edu
Moonan P.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Teeter L.D.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute |
Salcedo K.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Ghosh S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a potential threat to tuberculosis elimination, but the extent of MDR tuberculosis disease in the USA that is attributable to transmission within the country is unknown. We assessed transmission of MDR tuberculosis and potential contributing factors in the USA. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype data were obtained during routine surveillance of all verified cases of MDR tuberculosis reported from eight states in the USA (California from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2009; Texas from Jan 1, 2007, to March 31, 2009; and the states of Colorado, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Tennessee, and Washington from Jan 1, 2007 to Dec 31, 2008). In-depth interviews and health-record abstraction were done for all who consented to ascertain potential interpersonal connections. Findings: 168 cases of MDR tuberculosis were reported in the eight states during our study period. 92 individuals (55%) consented to in-depth interview. 20 (22%) of these individuals developed MDR tuberculosis as a result of transmission in the USA; a source case was identified for eight of them (9%). 20 individuals (22%) had imported active tuberculosis (ie, culture-confirmed disease within 3 months of entry into the USA). 38 (41%) were deemed to have reactivation of disease, of whom 14 (15%) had a known previous episode of tuberculosis outside the USA. Five individuals (5%) had documented treatment of a previous episode in the USA, and so were deemed to have relapsed. For nine cases (10%), insufficient evidence was available to definitively classify reason for presentation. Interpretation: About a fifth of cases of MDR tuberculosis in the USA can be linked to transmission within the country. Many individuals acquire MDR tuberculosis before entry into the USA. MDR tuberculosis needs to be diagnosed rapidly to reduce potential infectious periods, and clinicians should consider latent tuberculosis infection treatment-tailored to the results of drug susceptibility testing of the putative source case-for exposed individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Chow J.M.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2012
The passage of the landmark United States (US) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 has placed a new emphasis on prevention services, including increased access, coverage, and improved quality of care. In this legislation, chlamydia screening qualifies along with other preventive services (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, P.H. 111-148, March 2010, §2,713) as an essential health service benefit by virtue of having an "A" rating ("strongly recommended") from the US Preventive Services Task Force. However, along with this important commitment of public health resources comes accountability by demonstrating outcomes and results. It should not come as a surprise that in the current era of unprecedented government budget reductions, there is a compelling need for evidence-based prioritization and impact assessment. Funding agencies increasingly need health program data to show the impact of investment in preventive services, and chlamydia screening is no exception. However, measuring the population-level impact of chlamydia screening expansion in the US since the 1980s has been problematic; conflicting data on screening uptake, chlamydia burden, and adverse reproductive outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal factor infertility, have all been challenging to interpret, despite compelling epidemiologic evidence supporting intervention. © 2012 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.
Banada P.P.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Koshy R.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Alland D.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013
We have developed a novel blood lysis-centrifugation approach for highly sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in large volumes of blood with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. One through 20 ml of blood was spiked with 0.25 to 10 CFU/ml of theM. tuberculosis surrogateM. bovis BCG. Multiple replicates of each sample were processed by a new lysis-centrifugation method and tested with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The assay was very sensitive with increased blood volumes. In the 20-ml samples, BCG was detected in blood spiked with 10, 5, 1, and 0.25 CFU/ml 100, 100, 83, and 57% of the time, respectively, compared to 100, 66, 18, and 18%, of the time, respectively, in 1-ml blood samples. Assay sensitivity was influenced by the type of anticoagulant used, with acid-citrate-dextrose solution B (ACD-B) providing the best results. A limit of detection of 10 CFU/ml was established with BCG spiked into ACD-B-treated blood, and 92, 36, and 33% of the samples with 5, 1, and 0.5 CFU/ml, respectively, were assay positive. The lysis buffer was stable both at room temperature and at 4°C for 2 months. The assay was tested with blood stored for 8 days without a change in sensitivity as measured by cycle threshold. This new assay format extends the capability of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, enabling up to 20 ml of blood to be tested rapidly for the presence of M. tuberculosis. This approach may be a useful method to detect extrapulmonary tuberculosis and the risk of death in immunocompromised patients. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Walter N.D.,University of Colorado at Denver |
Painter J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Lowenthal P.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Flood J.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014
Rationale: Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by imported active TB. Objectives: Estimate reactivation and imported TB in an immigrant cohort. Methods: We linked preimmigration records from a cohort of California-bound Filipino immigrants during 2001-2010 with subsequent TB reports. TB was likely LTBI reactivation if the immigrant had no evidence of active TB at preimmigration examination, likely imported if preimmigration radiograph was abnormal and TB was reported less than or equal to 6 months after arrival, and likely reactivation of inactive TB if radiograph was abnormal but TB was reported more than 6 months after arrival. Measurements and Main Results: Among 123,114 immigrants, 793 TB cases were reported. Within 1 year of preimmigration examination, 85% of TB was imported; 6 and 9% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. Conversely, during Years 2-9 after U.S. entry, 76 and 24% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. The rate of LTBI reactivation (32 per 100,000) did not decline during Years 1-9. Conclusions: High postarrival TB rates were caused by detection of imported TB through active postarrival surveillance. Among immigrants without active TB at baseline, reported TB did not decline over 9 years, indicating sustained high risk of LTBI reactivation. Revised guidelines should support LTBI screening and treatment more than 5 years after U.S. arrival. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.
Jackson A.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Van Der Horst C.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2012
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients, especially in areas of high HIV prevalence, although it can also cause disease in the apparently immunocompetent. Improving the management of HIV-associated CM is important to ensure that patients can survive to benefit from increasing access to ART. In this review we focus on recent advances in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CM. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Bauer H.M.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Wright G.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Chow J.,Center for Infectious Diseases
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012
Because of the rapid development of genital warts (GW) after infection, monitoring GW trends may provide early evidence of population-level human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness. Trends in GW diagnoses were assessed using public family planning administrative data. Between 2007 and 2010, among females younger than 21 years, these diagnoses decreased 35% from 0.94% to 0.61% (P trend < .001). Decreases were also observed among males younger than 21 years (19%); and among females and males ages 21-25 (10% and 11%, respectively). The diagnoses stabilized or increased among older age groups. HPV vaccine may be preventing GW among young people.
Zhang Y.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Romanov G.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Bliska J.B.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2011
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen. Virulence in Y. pseudotuberculosis requires the plasmid-encoded Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions to translocate a set of effectors called Yops into infected host cells. The effectors function to antagonize phagocytosis (e.g., YopH) or to induce apoptosis (YopJ) in macrophages infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis. Additionally, when antiphagocytosis is incomplete and Y. pseudotuberculosis is internalized by macrophages, the bacterium can survive in phagosomes. Previous studies have shown that delivery of effectors into host cells occurs efficiently when Yersinia is extracellular. However, it is not clear whether the T3SS can be utilized by intracellular Y. pseudotuberculosis to translocate Yops. This possibility was investigated here using Y. pseudotuberculosis strains that express YopJ or YopH under the control of an inducible promoter. Bone marrow-derived murine macrophages were infected with these strains under conditions that prevented the survival of extracellular bacteria. Effector translocation was detected by measuring apoptosis or the activities of Yop-β-lactamase fusion proteins. Results showed that macrophages underwent apoptosis when YopJ expression was induced prior to phagocytosis, confirming that delivery of this effector prior to or during uptake is sufficient to cause cell death. However, macrophages also underwent apoptosis when YopJ was ectopically expressed after phagocytosis; furthermore, expression of the translocator YopB from intracellular bacteria also resulted in increased cell death. Analysis by microscopy showed that translocation of ectopically expressed YopH- or YopJ-β-lactamase fusions could be correlated with the presence of viable Y. pseudotuberculosis in macrophages. Collectively, our results suggest that the Ysc T3SS of Y. pseudotuberculosis can function within macrophage phagosomes to translocate Yops into the host cytosol. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.
Pollini R.A.,University of California at San Diego |
Blanco E.,University of California at San Diego |
Crump C.,Center for Infectious Diseases |
Zuniga M.L.,University of California at San Diego
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011
Timely treatment of HIV infection is a public health priority, yet many HIV-positive persons delay treatment initiation. We conducted a community-based study comparing HIV-positive persons who received an HIV diagnosis at least 3 months ago but had not initiated care (n=100) with a reference population of HIV-positive persons currently in care (n=115) to identify potential barriers to treatment initiation. Study participants were mostly male (78.0%), and persons of color (54.9% Latino, 26.3% black), with median age 37.8 years. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 3.7 years. Univariate analysis revealed that those never in care differed substantially from those currently in care with regard to sociodemographics; HIV testing and counseling experiences; perceived barriers to care; and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HIV. Factors independently associated with never initiating HIV care were younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 0.99), shorter time since diagnosis (AOR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98), lacking insurance (AOR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.35), not knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (AOR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) not disclosing HIV status (AOR=0.13; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.70), not receiving help making an HIV care appointment after diagnosis (AOR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14), and not wanting to think about being HIV positive (AOR=3.57; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.46). Our findings suggest that isolation and stigma remain significant barriers to initiating HIV care in populations consisting primarily of persons of color, and that direct linkages to HIV care at the time of diagnosis are critical to promoting timely care initiation in these populations. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.