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Chow J.M.,Center for Infectious Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2012

The passage of the landmark United States (US) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 has placed a new emphasis on prevention services, including increased access, coverage, and improved quality of care. In this legislation, chlamydia screening qualifies along with other preventive services (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, P.H. 111-148, March 2010, §2,713) as an essential health service benefit by virtue of having an "A" rating ("strongly recommended") from the US Preventive Services Task Force. However, along with this important commitment of public health resources comes accountability by demonstrating outcomes and results. It should not come as a surprise that in the current era of unprecedented government budget reductions, there is a compelling need for evidence-based prioritization and impact assessment. Funding agencies increasingly need health program data to show the impact of investment in preventive services, and chlamydia screening is no exception. However, measuring the population-level impact of chlamydia screening expansion in the US since the 1980s has been problematic; conflicting data on screening uptake, chlamydia burden, and adverse reproductive outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal factor infertility, have all been challenging to interpret, despite compelling epidemiologic evidence supporting intervention. © 2012 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved. Source


Pollini R.A.,University of California at San Diego | Blanco E.,University of California at San Diego | Crump C.,Center for Infectious Diseases | Zuniga M.L.,University of California at San Diego
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011

Timely treatment of HIV infection is a public health priority, yet many HIV-positive persons delay treatment initiation. We conducted a community-based study comparing HIV-positive persons who received an HIV diagnosis at least 3 months ago but had not initiated care (n=100) with a reference population of HIV-positive persons currently in care (n=115) to identify potential barriers to treatment initiation. Study participants were mostly male (78.0%), and persons of color (54.9% Latino, 26.3% black), with median age 37.8 years. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 3.7 years. Univariate analysis revealed that those never in care differed substantially from those currently in care with regard to sociodemographics; HIV testing and counseling experiences; perceived barriers to care; and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HIV. Factors independently associated with never initiating HIV care were younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 0.99), shorter time since diagnosis (AOR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98), lacking insurance (AOR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.35), not knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (AOR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) not disclosing HIV status (AOR=0.13; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.70), not receiving help making an HIV care appointment after diagnosis (AOR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14), and not wanting to think about being HIV positive (AOR=3.57; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.46). Our findings suggest that isolation and stigma remain significant barriers to initiating HIV care in populations consisting primarily of persons of color, and that direct linkages to HIV care at the time of diagnosis are critical to promoting timely care initiation in these populations. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Xia Q.,Rti International | Nonoyama A.,Center for Infectious Diseases | Molitor F.,Walter R. McDonald and Associates Inc | Webb D.,Center for Infectious Diseases | Osmond D.,University of California at San Francisco
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Monitoring the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is imperative for developing targeted prevention programs and evaluating their effectiveness. The authors used California counseling and testing data to estimate the temporal trend in HIV incidence among MSM in California. HIV incidence rates were retrospectively calculated among MSM who had received at least 1 HIV test at a public California counseling and testing site between 1997 and 2007 and had a prior HIV-negative test from any HIV testing source. All study subjects were weighted on the basis of the interval between the last HIV-negative test and the current HIV test to account for the right-truncation bias introduced by more frequent testers. The authors observed that the HIV incidence rate among MSM in California increased from 2.0/100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 2.2) in 1997 to 2.4/100 person-years (95% CI: 2.2, 2.6) in 2003 and then decreased to 1.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 1.7, 2.0) in 2006. Trend analyses showed that both the increase (P < 0.001) and the decrease (P < 0.01) were statistically significant. The study showed that HIV incidence among MSM in California had decreased since 2003. © 2011 The Author. Source


Moonan P.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Teeter L.D.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Salcedo K.,Center for Infectious Diseases | Ghosh S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a potential threat to tuberculosis elimination, but the extent of MDR tuberculosis disease in the USA that is attributable to transmission within the country is unknown. We assessed transmission of MDR tuberculosis and potential contributing factors in the USA. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype data were obtained during routine surveillance of all verified cases of MDR tuberculosis reported from eight states in the USA (California from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2009; Texas from Jan 1, 2007, to March 31, 2009; and the states of Colorado, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Tennessee, and Washington from Jan 1, 2007 to Dec 31, 2008). In-depth interviews and health-record abstraction were done for all who consented to ascertain potential interpersonal connections. Findings: 168 cases of MDR tuberculosis were reported in the eight states during our study period. 92 individuals (55%) consented to in-depth interview. 20 (22%) of these individuals developed MDR tuberculosis as a result of transmission in the USA; a source case was identified for eight of them (9%). 20 individuals (22%) had imported active tuberculosis (ie, culture-confirmed disease within 3 months of entry into the USA). 38 (41%) were deemed to have reactivation of disease, of whom 14 (15%) had a known previous episode of tuberculosis outside the USA. Five individuals (5%) had documented treatment of a previous episode in the USA, and so were deemed to have relapsed. For nine cases (10%), insufficient evidence was available to definitively classify reason for presentation. Interpretation: About a fifth of cases of MDR tuberculosis in the USA can be linked to transmission within the country. Many individuals acquire MDR tuberculosis before entry into the USA. MDR tuberculosis needs to be diagnosed rapidly to reduce potential infectious periods, and clinicians should consider latent tuberculosis infection treatment-tailored to the results of drug susceptibility testing of the putative source case-for exposed individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Walter N.D.,University of Colorado at Denver | Painter J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Parker M.,Denver Metro Tuberculosis Control Program | Lowenthal P.,Center for Infectious Diseases | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by imported active TB. Objectives: Estimate reactivation and imported TB in an immigrant cohort. Methods: We linked preimmigration records from a cohort of California-bound Filipino immigrants during 2001-2010 with subsequent TB reports. TB was likely LTBI reactivation if the immigrant had no evidence of active TB at preimmigration examination, likely imported if preimmigration radiograph was abnormal and TB was reported less than or equal to 6 months after arrival, and likely reactivation of inactive TB if radiograph was abnormal but TB was reported more than 6 months after arrival. Measurements and Main Results: Among 123,114 immigrants, 793 TB cases were reported. Within 1 year of preimmigration examination, 85% of TB was imported; 6 and 9% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. Conversely, during Years 2-9 after U.S. entry, 76 and 24% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. The rate of LTBI reactivation (32 per 100,000) did not decline during Years 1-9. Conclusions: High postarrival TB rates were caused by detection of imported TB through active postarrival surveillance. Among immigrants without active TB at baseline, reported TB did not decline over 9 years, indicating sustained high risk of LTBI reactivation. Revised guidelines should support LTBI screening and treatment more than 5 years after U.S. arrival. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

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