Koethe J.R.,Vanderbilt University |
Koethe J.R.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Heimburger D.C.,Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health |
Heimburger D.C.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Heimburger D.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010
The twin global epidemics of HIV infection and food scarcity disproportionately affect sub-Saharan Africa, and a significant proportion of patients who require antiretroviral therapy (ART) are malnourished because of a combination of HIV-associated wasting and inadequate nutrient intake. Protein-calorie malnutrition, the most common form of adult malnutrition in the region, is associated with significant morbidity and compounds the immunosuppressive effects of HIV. A low body mass index (BMI), a sign of advanced malnutrition, is an independent predictor of early mortality (<6 mo) after ART initiation in several analyses, and recent studies show an association between early weight gain when receiving ART and improved treatment outcomes. The cause of the observed increase in mortality is uncertain, but it is likely due in part to malnutritioninduced immune system dysfunction, a higher burden of opportunistic infections, and metabolic derangements. In this article, we describe the epidemiology of HIV infection and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, potential causes of increased mortality after ART initiation among patients with a low BMI, recent studies on post-ART weight gain and treatment outcome, and trials of macronutrient supplementation from the region. We close by highlighting priority areas for future research. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.
Delany-Moretlwe S.,University of Witwatersrand |
Cowan F.M.,CeSHHAR |
Cowan F.M.,University College London |
Busza J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015
Introduction: Adolescence is a time of physical, emotional and social transitions that have implications for health. In addition to being at high risk for HIV, young key populations (YKP) may experience other health problems attributable to high-risk behaviour or their developmental stage, or a combination of both. Methods: We reviewed the needs, barriers and gaps for other non-HIV health services for YKP.We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles that provided specific age-related data on sexual and reproductive health; mental health; violence; and substance use problems for adolescent, youth or young sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, and people who inject drugs. Results: YKP experience more unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, mental health disorders and substance use compared to older members of key populations and youth among the general population. YKP experience significant barriers to accessing care; coverage of services is low, largely because of stigma and discrimination experienced at both the health system and policy levels. Discussion: YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care. ©Delany-Moretlwe S et al; licensee International AIDS Society.
Chirwa S.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
Global health promotion | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: To make a rapid assessment of the common myths and misconceptions surrounding the causes of cervical cancer and lack of screening among unscreened low-income Zambian women. METHODS: We initiated a door-to-door community-based initiative, led by peer educators, to inform unscreened women about the existence of a new see-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program. During home visits peer educators posed the following two questions to women: 1. What do you think causes cervical cancer? 2. Why haven't you been screened for cervical cancer? The most frequent types of responses gathered in this exercise were analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Peer educators contacted over 1100 unscreened women over a period of two months. Their median age was 33 years, a large majority (58%) were not educated beyond primary school, over two-thirds (71%) did not have monthly incomes over 500,000 Zambian Kwacha (US$100) per month, and just over half (51%) were married and cohabiting with their spouses. Approximately 75% of the women engaged in discussions had heard of cervical cancer and had heard of the new cervical cancer prevention program in the local clinic. The responses of unscreened low-income Zambian women to questions posed by peer educators in urban Lusaka reflect the variety of prevalent 'folk' myths and misconceptions surrounding cervical cancer and its prevention methods. CONCLUSION: The information in our rapid assessment can serve as a basis for developing future educational and intervention campaigns for improving uptake of cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia. It also speaks to the necessity of ensuring that programs addressing women's reproductive health take into account societal inputs at the time they are being developed and implemented. Taking a community-based participatory approach to program development and implementation will help ensure sustainability and impact.
Presumptive diagnosis of severe hiv infection to determine the need for antiretroviral therapy in children less than 18 months of age [Diagnóstico provisional de la infección grave por el VIH para determinar la necesidad del tratamiento antirretrovírico en niños menores de 18 meses de edad]
Grundmann N.,Stanford University |
Iliff P.,ZVITAMBO Project |
Stringer J.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Wilfert C.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011
Objective To develop a new algorithm for the presumptive diagnosis of severe disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children less than 18 months of age for the purpose of identifying children who require antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A conditional probability model was constructed and non-virologic parameters in various combinations were tested in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 children aged 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of these algorithms for identifying children in need of ART. The modelled parameters consisted of clinical criteria, rapid HIV antibody testing and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) count. Findings In children younger than 18 months, the best-performing screening algorithm, consisting of clinical symptoms plus antibody testing plus CD4 count, showed a sensitivity ranging from 71% to 80% and a specificity ranging from 92% to 99%. Positive and negative predictive values were between 61% and 97% and between 95% and 96%, respectively. In the absence of virologic tests, this alternate algorithm for the presumptive diagnosis of severe HIV disease makes it possible to correctly initiate ART in 91% to 98% of HIV-positive children who are at highest risk of dying. Conclusion The algorithms presented in this paper have better sensitivity and specificity than clinical parameters, with or without rapid HIV testing, for the presumptive diagnosis of severe disease in HIV-positive children less than 18 months of age. If implemented, they can increase the number of HIV-positive children successfully initiated on ART.
Moore C.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Moore C.B.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Ciaraldi E.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2015
The last two decades have seen exceptional development of antiretroviral treatment programs throughout the world. Over 14 million persons are accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) treatment as of early 2015, and life expectancy has risen markedly in the most-affected populations. However, large patient numbers threaten to overwhelm already over-burdened health care systems and retention in care remains suboptimal. Developing innovative strategies to alleviate these burdens and retain patients in care remains a challenge. Furthermore, despite this expansion, large populations of HIV-infected persons remain undiagnosed and are unwilling or unable to access care and treatment programs. Marginalized and high-risk populations are particularly in danger of remaining outside of care and are also disproportionately affected by HIV. To reverse the trend and “fast track” our way out of the epidemic, ambitious treatment targets are required, and a concerted effort has to be made to engage these populations into care, initiate ART, and attain viral suppression. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Stringer J.S.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
PLoS medicine | Year: 2013
Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding). We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7%) were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9%) were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9%) were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2%) were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6) overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5), South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1), Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8), and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2). In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06). Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received a more complex regimen compared to those given single-dose nevirapine (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.72). Community PMTCT coverage was highest in Cameroon, where 75 of 114 HIV-exposed infants met criteria for coverage (66%; 95% CI: 56, 74), followed by Zambia (219 of 444, 49%; 95% CI: 45, 54), then South Africa (152 of 365, 42%; 95% CI: 37, 47), and then Côte D'Ivoire (3 of 53, 5.7%; 95% CI: 1.2, 16). In a cluster-level analysis, community PMTCT coverage was highly correlated with facility PMTCT coverage (Pearson's r = 0.85), and moderately correlated with 24-mo HIV-free survival (Pearson's r = 0.29). In 14 of 16 instances where both the facility and community samples were large enough for comparison, the facility-based coverage measure exceeded that observed in the community. HIV-free survival can be estimated with community surveys and should be incorporated into ongoing country monitoring. Facility-based coverage measures correlate with those derived from community sampling, but may overestimate population coverage. The more complex regimens recommended by the World Health Organization seem to have measurable public health benefit at the population level, but power was limited and additional field validation is needed.
Opt-out provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in primary care outpatient clinics in Zambia [Conseils et dépistage du vih engagés par des professionnels de la santé dans les principales cliniques pour patients en consultation externe en Zambie]
Topp S.M.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Chipukuma J.M.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Chiko M.M.,Lusaka District Health Management Board |
Wamulume C.S.,Lusaka District Health Management Board |
And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011
Objective To increase case-finding of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zambia and their referral to HIV care and treatment by supplementing existing client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), the dominant mode of HIV testing in the country. Methods Lay counsellors offered provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) to all outpatients who attended primary clinics and did not know their HIV serostatus. Data on counselling and testing were collected in registers. Outcomes of interest included HIV testing coverage, the acceptability of testing, the proportion testing HIV-positive (HIV+), the proportion enrolling in HIV care and treatment and the time between testing and enrolment. Findings After the addition of PITC to VCT, the number tested for HIV infection in the nine clinics was twice the number undergoing VCT alone. Over 30 months, 44 420 patients were counselled under PITC and 31 197 patients, 44% of them men, accepted testing. Of those tested, 21% (6572) were HIV+; 38% of these HIV+ patients (2515) enrolled in HIV care and treatment. The median time between testing and enrolment was 6 days. The acceptability of testing rose over time. Conclusion The introduction of routine PITC using lay counsellors into health-care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, dramatically increased the uptake and acceptability of HIV testing. Moreover, PITC was incorporated rapidly into primary care outpatient departments. Maximizing the number of patients who proceed to HIV care and treatment remains a challenge and warrants further research.
Chi B.H.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Chi B.H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Stringer J.S.A.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Stringer J.S.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Moodley D.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2013
Considerable advances have been made in the effort to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral regimens to interrupt HIV transmission through the antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods. Scientific discoveries have been rapidly translated into health policy, bolstered by substantial investment in health infrastructure capable of delivering increasingly complex services. A new scientific agenda is also emerging, one that is focused on the challenges of effective and sustainable program implementation. Finally, global campaigns to "virtually eliminate" pediatric HIV and dramatically reduce HIV-related maternal mortality have mobilized new resources and renewed political will. Each of these developments marks a major step in regional PMTCT efforts; their convergence signals a time of rapid progress in the field, characterized by an increased interdependency between clinical research, program implementation, and policy. In this review, we take stock of recent advances across each of these areas, highlighting the challenges - and opportunities - of improving health services for HIV-infected mothers and their children across the region. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Stringer E.M.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the rates and determinants of stillbirth in an urban African obstetric population. Methods:In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed vital outcomes of newborns whose mothers received antenatal care, delivery care, or both antenatal and delivery care in the Lusaka, Zambia, public sector between February 2006 and March 2009. We excluded newborns weighing less than 1,000 g, those whose mothers died before delivery, and those born outside Lusaka. Rssults: There were 100,454 deliveries that met criteria for inclusion. The median maternal age at the initial visit was 24 years (interquartile range 21-29) and the median gestational age was 22 weeks (interquartile range 19-26). The median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (interquartile range 36-40), and the median neonatal birth weight was 3,000 g (interquartile range 2,750-3,300). A total of 2,109 fetuses were stillborn (crude rate, 21 per 1,000 live births, 95% confidence interval 20.1 per 1,000 to 21.9 per 1,000). This included 1,049 (49.7%) stillbirths classified as "recent" (presumed to have occurred within 12 hours of delivery) and 1,060 (50.3%) classified as "macerated" (presumed to have occurred more than 12 hours before delivery). In adjusted analysis, increasing maternal age, baseline body mass index greater than 26, history of stillbirth, placental abruption, maternal untreated syphilis, cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, assisted breech delivery, and extremes of neonatal birth weight were all significantly associated with stillbirth. CONCLUSION:: Stillbirth is a major contributor to poor perinatal outcomes in Lusaka. Many deaths appear avoidable through investment in antenatal screening and better labor monitoring. Stillbirth should be adopted as a routine health indicator by the World Health Organization. © 2011 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Chi B.H.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Chi B.H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Bolton-Moore C.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia |
Bolton-Moore C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2013
Purpose of Review: To reach virtual elimination of pediatric HIV, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) must expand coverage and achieve long-term retention of mothers and infants. Although PMTCT have been traditionally aligned with maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services, novel approaches are needed to address the increasing demands of evolving global PMTCT policies. Recent Findings: PMTCT-MNCH integration has improved the uptake and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among treatment-eligible pregnant women in public health settings. Postpartum engagement of HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed infants has been insufficient, although alignment of visits to the childhood immunization schedule and establishment of integrated mother-infant clinics may increase retention. Evidence also suggests that the integration of maternal HIV testing into childhood immunization clinics can significantly increase the identification of at-risk HIV-exposed infants previously missed by traditional PMTCT models. Summary: Targeted service integration models can improve PMTCT uptake. However, as global PMTCT policy shifts to universal provision of maternal ART during pregnancy (i.e., Option B/B+), these findings must be reexamined in the context of increased service demand and systems burden. Intensive evaluation is needed to ensure quality clinical care is maintained both for PMTCT and for underpinning MNCH services. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.