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Merkt J.,Center for Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk eA | Merkt J.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Singmann H.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bodenburg S.,University of Hamburg | And 6 more authors.
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders | Year: 2013

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor adaptation to environmental demands, which leads to various everyday life problems. The present study had four aims: (1) to compare performance in a flanker task in female college students with and without ADHD (N = 39) in a classical analyses of reaction time and error rate and studying the underlying processes using a diffusion model, (2) to compare the amount of focused attention, (3) to explore the adaptation of focused attention, and (4) to relate adaptation to psychological functioning. The study followed a 2-between (group: ADHD vs. control) × 2-within (flanker conflict: incongruent vs. congruent) × 2-within (conflict frequency: 20 vs. 80 %) design. Compared to a control group, the ADHD group displayed prolonged response times accompanied by fewer errors in a flanker task. Results from the diffusion model analyses revealed that the members of the ADHD group showed deficits in non-decisional processes (i.e., higher non-decision time) and leaned more toward accuracy than participants without ADHD (i.e., setting higher boundaries). The ADHD group showed a more focused attention and less adaptation to the task conditions which is related to psychological functioning. Deficient non-decisional processes and poor adaptation are in line with theories of ADHD and presumably typical for the ADHD population, although this has not been shown using a diffusion model. However, we assume that the cautious strategy of trading speed of for accuracy is specific to the subgroup of female college students with ADHD and might be interpreted as a compensation mechanism. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Gawrilow C.,Deutsches Institute For Internationale Padagogische Forschung Dipf | Gawrilow C.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schmitt K.,Center for Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk eA | Schmitt K.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 2 more authors.
Kindheit und Entwicklung | Year: 2011

Children with ADHD are inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive. These symptoms result in disorders of learning as well as i frequent conflicts with parents, teachers, and peers. ADHD symptoms are explained by self-regulation deficits. Hence, difficulties show by children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD are assumed to be related to self-regulation deficits as well as to executive functio deficits and mainly deficits in cognitive control. Therefore, interventions that aim to facilitate self-regulation in children with ADHD (i. e if-then-plans) are particularly promising. © Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 2011.

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