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Cavagna M.,Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Cavagna M.,Hospital Perola Byington | Cavagna M.,Paulista Center for Diagnosis | Oliveira J.B.A.,Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | And 17 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: It is not well established whether the increased number of leukocytes in the seminal fluid impairs the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This investigation analysed the outcomes of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles in couples in which the male partner exhibited leukocytospermia.Methods: A total of 100 cycles in 100 couples were included in this study. For the ICSI or IMSI procedures, the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of leukocytospermia and then matched by (female) age:. ICSI: Group I (n = 25): Leukocytospermia - semen samples with a leukocyte count of greater than or equal to 1 × 10(6)/mL; and Group II (n = 25): Non-leukocytospermia - semen samples with a leukocyte count < 1 × 10(6)/mL. IMSI: Group I (n = 25): Leukocytospermia; and Group II (n = 25): Non-leukocytospermia.The endpoints included the rates of fertilisation, implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy and live birth. Student's t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests and Chi-square tests were performed, and P < 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The data from the ICSI groups showed that leukocytospermia did not have a negative influence on the rates of fertilisation (Group I: 57.9+/-30.2%, Group II: 61.9+/-27.7%; P = 0.74), implantation (Group I: 12.3%; Group II: 13.5%; P = 0.93), clinical pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P = 1.0), miscarriage (Group I: 0, Group II: 0), ongoing pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P = 1.0), or live births (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P = 1.0). Similarly, the data from the IMSI groups also showed that the leukocytospermia did not have a negative influence on the rates of fertilisation (Group I: 67.6+/-24.6%, Group II: 59.5+/-28.1%; P = 0.36), implantation (Group I: 17.5%; Group II: 16.7%; P = 0.90), clinical pregnancy (Group I: 28%; Group II: 24%; P = 1.0), miscarriage (Group I: 14.3%; Group II: 0; P = 0.33), ongoing pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P = 1.0), or live births (Group I: 24%, 6/25; Group II: 24%, 6/25; P = 1.0).Conclusions: The results indicate that the leukocytospermia may not have a negative effect on the outcomes of ICSI or IMSI cycles. Nevertheless, it seems that it is necessary to more precisely determine the effects, if any, of seminal leukocytes on fertilisation and implantation processes. Such efforts will help to establish a more reliable leukocyte threshold, which could eventually demonstrate whether there is a negative influence on the ART procedures. © 2012 Cavagna et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Silva L.F.I.,São Paulo State University | Silva L.F.I.,Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Silva L.F.I.,Paulista Center for Diagnosis | Oliveira J.B.A.,São Paulo State University | And 17 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME).Methods: Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast) optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area). At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years.Results: There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II) groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III) was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of LNV spermatozoa between the younger (I and II) groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III) than in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of normal sperm with increasing age (P < 0.05; r = -0.10). However, there was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of spermatozoa with LNV and male age (P < 0.05, r = 0.10).Conclusion: The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of fertilisation with damaged spermatozoa. Given that sperm nuclear vacuoles can be evaluated more precisely at high magnification, these results support the routine use of MSOME for ICSI as a criterion for semen analysis. © 2012 Silva et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Oliveira J.B.A.,São Paulo State University | Oliveira J.B.A.,Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Oliveira J.B.A.,Paulista Center for Diagnosis Research and Training | Baruffi R.,Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | And 10 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Background: The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes.Methods: The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures.Results: All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P < 0.0001), CPR per transfer (P = 0.006) and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.02) in the group that received luteal-phase GnRH-a administration than in the control group (without luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration). When meta-analysis was carried out only in trials that had used long GnRH-a ovarian stimulation protocol, CPR per transfer (P = 0.06) and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.23) rates were not significantly different between the groups, but implantation rate was significant higher (P = 0.02) in the group that received luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration. On the other hand, the results from trials that had used GnRH antagonist multi-dose ovarian stimulation protocol showed statistically significantly higher implantation (P = 0.0002), CPR per transfer (P = 0.04) and ongoing pregnancy rate (P = 0.04) in the luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration group. The majority of the results presented heterogeneity.Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided. © 2010 Oliveira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Paulista Center for Diagnosis Research and Training and Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproductive biomedicine online | Year: 2016

Certain gene polymorphisms are associated with implantation failure and pregnancy loss. Studies of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene polymorphisms are scarce. The LIF single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) thymine (T)/guanine (G) (rs929271) was studied in women to determine whether an association existed with pregnancy outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); 411 women who underwent ICSI were recruited. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and the LIF gene SNP T/G (rs929271) was genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Participants were divided into three groups according to their LIF genotype: T/T (n = 168), T/G (n = 202) and G/G (n = 41). All IVF and ICSI procedures were carried out under the same clinical and laboratory conditions. The ICSI cumulative results (from fresh plus frozen cycles) of each genotype group were analysed. The G/G genotype in women was associated with a higher implantation rate (T/T: 15.9%, T/G: 16.2%, G/G: 27.0%; P < 0.05), ongoing pregnancy rate/patient (T/T: 31.5%, T/G: 36.1%, G/G: 53.7%; P < 0.05) and ongoing pregnancy rate/transfer (T/T: 18.5%, T/G: 20.2%, G/G: 36.7%; P < 0.05). LIF SNP T/G (rs929271) seems to be a susceptibility biomarker capable of predicting implantation efficiency and pregnancy outcomes.


Mauri A.L.,Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Petersen C.G.,Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Petersen C.G.,São Paulo State University | Oliveira J.B.A.,Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate whether intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) could influence early paternal effects by observing embryo quality at day 2. Study design: The study included 30 couples with at least one of the following criteria: male factor infertility, at least 2 previous failures of implantation or previous miscarriages after IVF/ICSI. Sibling oocytes of each patient were randomly assigned to either the ICSI group or the IMSI group. For IMSI, spermatozoa were selected at 8400× magnification through an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics, Uplan Apo 100× oil/1.35 objective lens and variable zoom lens. For conventional ICSI, spermatozoa were selected at 400× magnification. An embryo was defined as top quality if there were four identical blastomeres on day 2 with no fragments or multinucleation of blastomeres. Data were analysed using the Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. The variables were analysed in relation to the general population and the subpopulations with or without male factor. Results: A total of 331 MII oocytes (30 oocyte retrievals) were selected and injected by the ICSI (n: 172) or IMSI (n: 159) procedure. For IMSI, only spermatozoa classified as morphologically normal at high magnification were used. No differences (P > 0.05) in fertilisation rate (ICSI: 70.9%; IMSI: 70.4%), early embryo cleavage rate (ICSI: 66.9%; IMSI: 60.4%) or cleavage rate (ICSI: 99.2%; IMSI: 99.1%) were observed. On day 2, as compared to ICSI, IMSI provided a similar proportion of top quality embryos (ICSI: 57.8%; IMSI: 52.2%; P > 0.05). These results were not influenced by the presence or absence of male factor. Conclusion: In terms of embryo quality at day 2, IMSI had the same performance as conventional ICSI. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that IMSI effects occur only as a positive later paternal effect. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Oliveira J.B.A.,São Paulo State University | Oliveira J.B.A.,Paulista Center for Diagnosis | Oliveira J.B.A.,Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr | Petersen C.G.,São Paulo State University | And 14 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Background: Although the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) was developed only as a selection criterion, its application as a method for classifying sperm morphology may represent an improvement in evaluation of semen quality, with potential clinical repercussions. The present study aimed to evaluate individual variations in the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) analysis after a time interval.Methods: Two semen samples were obtained from 240 men from an unselected group of couples undergoing infertility investigation and treatment. Mean time interval between the two semen evaluations was 119 +/- 102 days. No clinical or surgical treatment was realized between the two observations. Spermatozoa were analyzed at greater than or equal to 8400× magnification by inverted microscope equipped with DIC/Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. At least 200 motile spermatozoa per semen sample were evaluated and percentages of normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV/one or more vacuoles occupying >50% of the sperm nuclear area) were determined. A spermatozoon was classified as morphologically normal when it exhibited a normal nucleus (smooth, symmetric and oval nucleus, width 3.28 +/- 0.20 μm, length 4.75 +/- 0.20 μm/absence of vacuoles occupying >4% of nuclear area) as well as acrosome, post-acrosomal lamina, neck and tail, besides not presenting cytoplasm around the head. One examiner, blinded to subject identity, performed the entire study.Results: Mean percentages of morphologically normal and LNV spermatozoa were identical in the two MSOME analyses (1.6 +/- 2.2% vs. 1.6 +/- 2.1% P = 0.83 and 25.2 +/- 19.2% vs. 26.1 +/- 19.0% P = 0.31, respectively). Regression analysis between the two samples revealed significant positive correlation for morphologically normal and for LNV spermatozoa (r = 0.57 95% CI:0.47-0.65 P < 0.0001 and r = 0.50 95% CI:0.38-0.58 P < 0.0001, respectively).Conclusions: The significant positive correlation and absence of differences between two sperm samples evaluated after a time interval with respect to normal morphology and LNV spermatozoa indicated that MSOME seems reliable (at least for these two specific sperm forms) for analyzing semen. The present result supports the future use of MSOME as a routine method for semen analysis. © 2010 Oliveira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of andrology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of DNA fragmentation and the presence of denatured single-strand or normal double-strand DNA in spermatozoa with extruded nuclear chromatin (ENC) selected by high magnification. Fresh semen samples from 55 patients were prepared by discontinuous isolate concentration gradient. Spermatozoa with normal nucleus (NN) and ENC were selected at 8400 magnification and placed on different slides. DNA fragmentation was determined by TUNEL assay. Denatured and double-stranded DNA was identified by the acridine orange fluorescence method. DNA fragmentation was not significantly different (p = 0.86) between spermatozoa with ENC (19.6%) and those with NN (20%). However, the percentage of spermatozoa with detectable denatured-stranded DNA in the ENC spermatozoon group (59.1%) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in the NN group (44.9%). The high level of denatured DNA in spermatozoa with ENC suggests premature decondensation and disaggregation of sperm chromatin fibres. The results show an association between ENC and DNA damage in spermatozoa, and support the routine morphological selection and injection of motile spermatozoa at high-magnification intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


PubMed | Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr
Type: | Journal: Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E | Year: 2012

It is not well established whether the increased number of leukocytes in the seminal fluid impairs the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This investigation analysed the outcomes of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles in couples in which the male partner exhibited leukocytospermia.A total of 100 cycles in 100 couples were included in this study. For the ICSI or IMSI procedures, the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of leukocytospermia and then matched by (female) age: ICSI: Group I (n=25): Leukocytospermia - semen samples with a leukocyte count of greater than or equal to 110(6)/mL; and Group II (n=25): Non-leukocytospermia - semen samples with a leukocyte count<110(6)/mL. IMSI: Group I (n=25): Leukocytospermia; and Group II (n=25): Non-leukocytospermia.The endpoints included the rates of fertilisation, implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy and live birth. Studentst-tests, Mann-Whitney tests and Chi-square tests were performed, and P<0.05 was considered significant.The data from the ICSI groups showed that leukocytospermia did not have a negative influence on the rates of fertilisation (Group I: 57.9+/-30.2%, Group II: 61.9+/-27.7%; P=0.74), implantation (Group I: 12.3%; Group II: 13.5%; P=0.93), clinical pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P=1.0), miscarriage (Group I: 0, Group II: 0), ongoing pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P=1.0), or live births (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P=1.0). Similarly, the data from the IMSI groups also showed that the leukocytospermia did not have a negative influence on the rates of fertilisation (Group I: 67.6+/-24.6%, Group II: 59.5+/-28.1%; P=0.36), implantation (Group I: 17.5%; Group II: 16.7%; P=0.90), clinical pregnancy (Group I: 28%; Group II: 24%; P=1.0), miscarriage (Group I: 14.3%; Group II: 0; P=0.33), ongoing pregnancy (Group I: 24%; Group II: 24%; P=1.0), or live births (Group I: 24%, 6/25; Group II: 24%, 6/25; P=1.0).The results indicate that the leukocytospermia may not have a negative effect on the outcomes of ICSI or IMSI cycles. Nevertheless, it seems that it is necessary to more precisely determine the effects, if any, of seminal leukocytes on fertilisation and implantation processes. Such efforts will help to establish a more reliable leukocyte threshold, which could eventually demonstrate whether there is a negative influence on the ART procedures.


PubMed | Center for Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology | Year: 2010

To evaluate whether intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) could influence early paternal effects by observing embryo quality at day 2.The study included 30 couples with at least one of the following criteria: male factor infertility, at least 2 previous failures of implantation or previous miscarriages after IVF/ICSI. Sibling oocytes of each patient were randomly assigned to either the ICSI group or the IMSI group. For IMSI, spermatozoa were selected at 8400x magnification through an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics, Uplan Apo 100x oil/1.35 objective lens and variable zoom lens. For conventional ICSI, spermatozoa were selected at 400x magnification. An embryo was defined as top quality if there were four identical blastomeres on day 2 with no fragments or multinucleation of blastomeres. Data were analysed using the Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests. The significance level was set at P<0.05. The variables were analysed in relation to the general population and the subpopulations with or without male factor.A total of 331 MII oocytes (30 oocyte retrievals) were selected and injected by the ICSI (n: 172) or IMSI (n: 159) procedure. For IMSI, only spermatozoa classified as morphologically normal at high magnification were used. No differences (P>0.05) in fertilisation rate (ICSI: 70.9%; IMSI: 70.4%), early embryo cleavage rate (ICSI: 66.9%; IMSI: 60.4%) or cleavage rate (ICSI: 99.2%; IMSI: 99.1%) were observed. On day 2, as compared to ICSI, IMSI provided a similar proportion of top quality embryos (ICSI: 57.8%; IMSI: 52.2%; P>0.05). These results were not influenced by the presence or absence of male factor.In terms of embryo quality at day 2, IMSI had the same performance as conventional ICSI. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that IMSI effects occur only as a positive later paternal effect.


PubMed | Paulista Center for Diagnosis and Center For Human Reproduction Prof Franco Jr
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Its known that the members of the TP53 family are involved in the regulation of female reproduction. Studies in mice showed that the TP73 gene (member of this family) plays a role in the size of follicular pool, ovulation rate and maintenance of genomic stability. In the present study we analyzed data from 605 patients with 37 years attending their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The association between the TP73 polymorphism (rs4648551, A>G) and the following parameters related to ovarian reserve, like age, antral follicular count (AFC), anti-Mullerian hormone levels (AMH) and ovarian response prediction index (ORPI) was evaluated. Our results showed an association of the AA genotype with diminished ovarian reserve (AMH <1, AFC 9). Women presenting the AA genotype had a 2.0-fold increased risk for having AMH <1 and AFC 9 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.23-3.31, P = 0.005). Patients presenting AA genotype had the lowest levels of AMH (P = 0.02), the lowest number of antral follicles (P = 0.01) and the lowest ORPI (P = 0.007). Analyzing the alleles, we can see an enrichment of the A allele in the group of diminished ovarian reserve (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.02-1.83, P = 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to analyze this polymorphism in humans for assessing the numbers of ovarian follicles and AMH levels and, therefore, the ovarian reserve. Our findings can contribute to the use of this polymorphism as a potential marker of diminished ovarian reserve.

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