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Shin M.,Boston Medical Center | Douglass L.M.,Boston Medical Center | Milunsky J.M.,Center for Human Genetics Inc. | Paul Rosman N.,Boston Medical Center
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2016

Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy is an unusual movement disorder, often accompanied by a family history of migraine. Some benign paroxysmal torticollis cases are associated with CACNA1A mutations. The authors sought to determine the frequency of CACNA1A mutations in benign paroxysmal torticollis by testing 8 children and their parents and by searching the literature for benign paroxysmal torticollis cases with accompanying CACNA1A mutations or other disorders linked to the same gene. In our 8 benign paroxysmal torticollis cases, the authors found 3 different polymorphisms, but no pathogenic mutations. By contrast, in the literature, the authors found 4 benign paroxysmal torticollis cases with CACNA1A mutations, 3 with accompanying family histories of 1 or more of familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and paroxysmal tonic upgaze. Thus, CACNA1A mutations are more likely to be found in children with benign paroxysmal torticollis if accompanied by family histories of familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, or paroxysmal tonic upgaze. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Upadhyay J.,St. Vincents Hospital | Steenkamp D.,Boston Medical Center | Milunsky J.,Center for Human Genetics Inc.
Endocrine Practice | Year: 2013

Objective: We review the syndrome of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal anomalies (HDR syndrome).Methods: The current understanding and relevant literature pertaining to the background, genetic considerations, clinical features, prognosis, and treatment of HDR syndrome are reviewed.Results: The combination of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal anomalies constitutes an unusual syndrome associated most commonly with haploinsufficiency in GATA3, which encodes a transcription factor that binds to the (A/T) GATA (A/G) consensus DNA sequence. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most consistently expressed clinical feature, being present in almost all affected individuals, and the combination of hypoparathyroidism and hearing impairment occurs in well over 90% of those affected, with various renal anomalies being the most heterogeneous feature of the classic triad. We characterize, in tabular form, the individual cases described in the literature and propose a classification scheme based on the presence or absence of renal anomalies. We also include the specific genetic abnormality and renal anomaly associated with each individual case.Conclusion: HDR syndrome is a heterogeneous syndrome most commonly associated with GATA3 haploinsufficiency. © 2013 AACE. Source


Steenkamp D.W.,Boston Medical Center | Milunsky J.M.,Center for Human Genetics Inc. | Sternthal E.,Boston Medical Center
Endocrine Practice | Year: 2013

Objective: To report a postulated mechanism for resistance to overt ketoacidosis due to prolonged insulin omission in a severely hyperglycemic woman with a 14-year history of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D).Methods: History, physical examination, laboratory testing, and genotyping were performed. We also revie. The medical literature pertinent to this patient's phenotype and genotype.Results: Proinsulin levels remained withi. The normal range (suppressed with hypoglycemia) despite simultaneous almost unmeasurable C-peptide levels during hyperglycemia. We confirmed a homozygous (TT) variant of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) 1858T, a T1D susceptibility gene associated with higher proinsulin levels.Conclusion: The extraordinarily preserved proinsulin biological activity may explai. The unusual resistance to overt ketoacidosis despite omission of exogenous insulin administration for extended periods of time. The role o. The associated PTPN22 1858TT variant remains speculative. © 2013 AACE. Source


Santen G.W.E.,Leiden University | Aten E.,Leiden University | Vulto-van Silfhout A.T.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Pottinger C.,All Wales Medical Genetics Service | And 75 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2013

De novo germline variants in several components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex can cause Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS), and nonsyndromic intellectual disability. We screened 63 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CSS for these genes (ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1) and identified pathogenic variants in 45 (71%) patients. We found a high proportion of variants in ARID1B (68%). All four pathogenic variants in ARID1A appeared to be mosaic. By using all variants from the Exome Variant Server as test data, we were able to classify variants in ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCB1 reliably as being pathogenic or nonpathogenic. For SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and SMARCE1 several variants in the EVS remained unclassified, underlining the importance of parental testing. We have entered all variant and clinical information in LOVD-powered databases to facilitate further genotype-phenotype correlations, as these will become increasingly important because of the uptake of targeted and untargeted next generation sequencing in diagnostics. The emerging phenotype-genotype correlation is that SMARCB1 patients have the most marked physical phenotype and severe cognitive and growth delay. The variability in phenotype seems most marked in ARID1A and ARID1B patients. Distal limbs anomalies are most marked in ARID1A patients and least in SMARCB1 patients. Numbers are small however, and larger series are needed to confirm this correlation. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. Source


Flore L.A.,Center for Human Genetics Inc. | Milunsky J.M.,Center for Human Genetics Inc.
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2012

Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) occur in up to 3% of the general population and are even more commonly encountered in the setting of the pediatric neurology clinic. New advances in technology and in the understanding of genetic disorders have led to changes in the diagnostic approach to a child with unexplained GDD or ID. Chromosomal microarray has become a first-line test for evaluation of patients in this population and has both significantly increased diagnostic yield and introduced new challenges in the interpretation of copy number variants of uncertain significance. The G-banded karyotype is now frequently utilized as an adjunct to the microarray rather than as a first-line test in individuals with GDD or ID. Fragile X DNA testing continues to be recommended in the initial evaluation of the child with GDD or ID. The presence or absence of certain cardinal features (such as microcephaly or macrocephaly, seizures, autism, abnormal neurologic examination, and facial dysmorphism) can be utilized to direct single-gene molecular testing. The availability of next-generation and massively parallel sequencing technologies has enabled the use of genetic testing panels, in which dozens of genes associated with GDD or ID may be rapidly analyzed. Most recently, the clinical availability of whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing has opened new possibilities for the evaluation of individuals with GDD or ID who have previously eluded a genetic diagnosis. Consultation with a medical geneticist is recommended when progressing beyond first-tier analyses to most efficiently prioritize testing. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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