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Gee H.Y.,Harvard University | Saisawat P.,University of Michigan | Ashraf S.,Harvard University | Hurd T.W.,University of Edinburgh | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is divided into steroid-sensitive (SSNS) and -resistant (SRNS) variants. SRNS causes end-stage kidney disease, which cannot be cured. While the disease mechanisms of NS are not well understood, genetic mapping studies suggest a multitude of unknown single-gene causes. We combined homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing and identified an ARHGDIA mutation that causes SRNS. We demonstrated that ARHGDIA is in a complex with RHO GTPases and is prominently expressed in podocytes of rat glomeruli. ARHGDIA mutations (R120X and G173V) from individuals with SRNS abrogated interaction with RHO GTPases and increased active GTP-bound RAC1 and CDC42, but not RHOA, indicating that RAC1 and CDC42 are more relevant to the pathogenesis of this SRNS variant than RHOA. Moreover, the mutations enhanced migration of cultured human podocytes; however, enhanced migration was reversed by treatment with RAC1 inhibitors. The nephrotic phenotype was recapitulated in arhgdia-deficient zebrafish. RAC1 inhibitors were partially effective in ameliorating arhgdia-associated defects. These findings identify a single-gene cause of NS and reveal that RHO GTPase signaling is a pathogenic mediator of SRNS. Source

Buscher A.K.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Beck B.B.,University of Cologne | Melk A.,Hannover Medical School | Hoefele J.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2016

Background and objectives Treatment of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) and steroid–resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is demanding, and renal prognosis is poor. Numerous causative gene mutations have been identified in SRNS that affect the renal podocyte. In the era of high–throughput sequencing techniques, patients with nongenetic SRNS frequently escape the scientific interest. We here present the long-term data of the German CNS/SRNS Follow-Up Study, focusing on the response to cyclosporin A (CsA) in patients with nongenetic versus genetic disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Cross–sectional and longitudinal clinical data were collected from 231 patients with CNS/SRNS treated at eight university pediatric nephrology units with a median observation time of 113 months (interquartile range, 50–178). Genotyping was performed systematically in all patients. Results The overall mutation detection rate was high at 57% (97% in CNS and 41% in SRNS); 85% of all mutations were identified by the analysis of three single genes only (NPHS1, NPHS2, and WT1), accounting for 92% of all mutations in patients with CNS and 79% of all mutations in patients with SRNS. Remission of the disease in nongenetic SRNS was observed in 78% of patients after a median treatment period of 2.5 months; 82% of nongenetic patients responded within 6 months of therapy, and 98% of patients with nongenetic SRNS and CsA–induced complete remission (normalbuminemia and no proteinuria) maintained a normal renal function. Genetic SRNS, on the contrary, is associated with a high rate of ESRD in 66% of patients. Only 3% of patients with genetic SRNS experienced a complete remission and 16% of patients with genetic SRNS experienced a partial remission after CsA therapy. Conclusions The efficacy of CsA is high in nonhereditary SRNS, with an excellent prognosis of renal function in the large majority of patients. CsA should be given for a minimum period of 6 months in these patients with nongenetic SRNS. In genetic SRNS, response to CsA was low and restricted to exceptional patients. © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology Source

Beicht S.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | Strobl-Wildemann G.,Humangenetik Ulm MVZ | Rath S.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | Wachter O.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | And 6 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Alport syndrome (ATS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy characterized by hematuria and/or proteinuria with structural defects of the glomerular basement membrane. It can be associated with extrarenal manifestations (high-tone sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities). Somatic mutations in COL4A5 (X-linked), COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes (both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant) cause Alport syndrome. Somatic mosaicism in Alport patients is very rare. The reason for this may be due to the difficulty of detection.We report the case of a boy and his mother who presented with Alport syndrome. Mutational analysis showed the novel hemizygote pathogenic mutation c.2396-1G>A (IVS29-1G>A) at the splice acceptor site of the intron 29 exon 30 boundary of the COL4A5 gene in the boy. The mutation in the mother would not have been detected by Sanger sequencing without the knowledge of the mutational analysis result of her son. Further investigation of the mother using next generation sequencing showed somatic mosaicism and implied potential germ cell mosaicism. The mutation in the mother has most likely occurred during early embryogenesis. Analysis of tissue of different embryonic origin in the mother confirmed mosaicism in both mesoderm and ectoderm.Low grade mosaicism is very difficult to detect by Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing is increasingly used in the diagnostics and might improve the detection of mosaicism. In the case of definite clinical symptoms of ATS and missing detection of a mutation by Sanger sequencing, mutational analysis should be performed by next generation sequencing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Vogl I.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | Benet-Pages A.,MGZ Munich | Eck S.H.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Diagnostics Dr Klein | Kuhn M.,Genetikum | And 7 more authors.
LaboratoriumsMedizin | Year: 2013

Over the past 6 years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been established as a valuable highthroughput method for research in molecular genetics and has successfully been employed in the identification of rare and common genetic variations. Although the high expectations regarding the discovery of new diagnostic targets and an overall reduction of cost have been achieved, technological challenges in instrument handling, robustness of the chemistry, and data analysis need to be overcome. Each workflow and sequencing platform have their particular problems and caveats, which need to be addressed. Regarding NGS, there is a variety of different enrichment methods, sequencing devices, or technologies as well as a multitude of analyzing software products available. In this manuscript, the authors focus on challenges in data analysis when employing different target enrichment methods and the best applications for each of them. Source

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