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Golzio C.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Havis E.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory | Daubas P.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Nuel G.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The LIM homeodomain gene Islet-1 (ISL1) encodes a transcription factor that has been associated with the multipotency of human cardiac progenitors, and in mice enables the correct deployment of second heart field (SHF) cells to become the myocardium of atria, right ventricle and outflow tract. Other markers have been identified that characterize subdomains of the SHF, such as the fibroblast growth factor Fgf10 in its anterior region. While functional evidence of its essential contribution has been demonstrated in many vertebrate species, SHF expression of Isl1 has been shown in only some models. We examined the relationship between human ISL1 and FGF10 within the embryonic time window during which the linear heart tube remodels into four chambers. ISL1 transcription demarcated an anatomical region supporting the conserved existence of a SHF in humans, and transcription factors of the GATA family were co-expressed therein. In conjunction, we identified a novel enhancer containing a highly conserved ISL1 consensus binding site within the FGF10 first intron. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated its direct occupation by ISL1. Transcription mediated by ISL1 from this FGF10 intronic element was enhanced by the presence of GATA4 and TBX20 cardiac transcription factors. Finally, transgenic mice confirmed that endogenous factors bound the human FGF10 intronic enhancer to drive reporter expression in the developing cardiac outflow tract. These findings highlight the interest of examining developmental regulatory networks directly in human tissues, when possible, to assess candidate non-coding regions that may be responsible for congenital malformations. © 2012 Golzio et al.

Brooks S.S.,The New School | Wall A.L.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Golzio C.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Kondyles A.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | And 5 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2014

Neurodevelopmental defects in humans represent a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we report the genetic and functional dissection of a multigenerational pedigree with an X-linked syndromic disorder hallmarked by microcephaly, growth retardation, and seizures. Using an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) next-generation sequencing diagnostic panel, we identified a novel missense mutation in the gene encoding 60S ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), a locus associated previously with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); the p.K78E change segregated with disease under an X-linked recessive paradigm while, consistent with causality, carrier females exhibited skewed X inactivation. To examine the functional consequences of the p.K78E change, we modeled RPL10 dysfunction in zebrafish. We show that endogenous rpl10 expression is augmented in anterior structures, and that suppression decreases head size in developing morphant embryos, concomitant with reduced bulk translation and increased apoptosis in the brain. Subsequently, using in vivo complementation, we demonstrate that p.K78E is a loss-of-function variant. Together, our findings suggest that a mutation within the conserved N-terminal end of RPL10, a protein in close proximity to the peptidyl transferase active site of the 60S ribosomal subunit, causes severe defects in brain formation and function. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

Zaghloul N.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Katsanis N.,Johns Hopkins University | Katsanis N.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Katsanis N.,Duke University
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2010

The ability to generate a massive amount of sequencing and genotyping data is transforming the study of human genetic disorders. Driven by such innovation, it is likely that whole exome and whole-genome resequencing will replace regionally focused approaches for gene discovery and clinical testing in the next few years. However, this opportunity brings a significant interpretative challenge to assigning function and phenotypic variance to common and rare alleles. Understanding the effect of individual mutations in the context of the remaining genomic variation represents a major challenge to our interpretation of disease. Here, we discuss the challenges of assigning mutation functionality and, drawing from the examples of ciliopathies as well as cohesinopathies and channelopathies, discuss possibilities for the functional modularization of the human genome. Functional modularization in addition to the development of physiologically relevant assays to test allele functionality will accelerate our understanding of disease architecture and enable the use of genome-wide sequence data for disease diagnosis and phenotypic prediction in individuals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou H.,The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute | Martinez H.,The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute | Sun B.,The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute | Li A.,The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2015

Human peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood represent attractive sources of cells for reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, to date, most of the blood-derived iPSCs were generated using either integrating methods or starting from T-lymphocytes that have genomic rearrangements thus bearing uncertain consequences when using iPSC-derived lineages for disease modeling and cell therapies. Recently, both peripheral blood and cord blood cells have been reprogrammed into transgene-free iPSC using the Sendai viral vector. Here we demonstrate that peripheral blood can be utilized formedium-throughput iPSC production without the need to maintain cell culture prior to reprogramming induction. Cell reprogramming can also be accomplished with as little as 3000 previously cryopreserved cord blood cells under feeder-free and chemically defined Xeno-free conditions that are compliant with standard Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations. The first iPSC colonies appear 2–3 weeks faster in comparison to previous reports. Notably, these peripheral blood- and cord bloodderived iPSCs are free of detectable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, suggesting they did not originate from B- or T- lymphoid cells. The iPSCs are pluripotent as evaluated by the scorecard assay and in vitro multi lineage functional cell differentiation. Our data show that small volumes of cryopreserved peripheral blood or cord blood cells can be reprogrammed efficiently at a convenient, cost effective and scalable way. In summary, our method expands the reprogramming potential of limited or archived samples either stored at blood banks or obtained from pediatric populations that cannot easily provide large quantities of peripheral blood or a skin biopsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

Brooks S.,The New School | Katsanis N.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Katsanis N.,Duke University | Davis E.E.,Center for Human Disease Modeling | Davis E.E.,Duke University
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2013

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare pediatric ciliopathy characterized by marked clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity. Typical diagnosis of BBS is secured at a median of 9 years of age, and sometimes well into adolescence. Here, we report a patient in whom prenatal detection of increased nuchal fold, enlarged echogenic kidneys, and polydactyly prompted us to screen the most commonly mutated genes in BBS and the phenotypically and genetically overlapping ciliopathy, Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). We identified the common Met390Arg mutation in BBS1 in compound heterozygosity with a novel intronic variant of unknown significance (VUS). Testing of mRNA harvested from primary foreskin fibroblasts obtained shortly after birth revealed the VUS to induce a cryptic splice site, which in turn led to a premature termination and mRNA degradation. To our knowledge, this is the earliest diagnosis of BBS in the absence of other affected individuals in the family, and exemplifies how combining clinical assessment with genetic and timely assays of variant pathogenicity can inform clinical diagnosis and assist with patient management in the prenatal and neonatal setting. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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