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Morillo F.,Center for Human and Social science

Partnership between the public and private sectors has been studied using different methodologies; among them, scientific articles offer an objective way to quantify and assess some of these public–private interactions. The present paper takes advantage of the funding acknowledgements (FA) section included in WoS articles written in English and studies some features of the funded research, such as impact and collaboration. For this purpose, articles with Spain in the address field are selected and retrieved (years 2008–2013), dividing them in two sets: articles with or without FA. Besides, given the large volume of items, the study is focused on groups of articles of each area selected by stratified random sampling. Additionally, those items with a FA section are analysed to identify three types of funding sources: only public, only private, or both sectors. The results show differences between areas in terms of presence of FA and types of funding sectors. On the one hand, in general, articles funded by both the public and private sectors present the best impact, as well as the highest number of authors and organisations. On the other hand, there are important variations in impact and collaboration between areas depending on types of funding sectors. Thus, items funded by both the public and private sectors show the highest significant impact in Clinical Medicine, Life Sciences and Physics, having also greater international collaboration, in most areas, than articles funded only by the public sector. Finally, some limitations of this study are identified and some recommendations for funders and authors are offered. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary Source

Volunteering is a ubiquitous and distinct feature of the British retired community in Spain, and for many older migrants volunteering constitutes a significant part of their post-retirement life abroad. Especially in the management and organisation of health and age-related problems voluntary organisations have come to play a crucial role not only for the British community but also for the Spanish host society and public health-care system. Furthermore, volunteering represents a valuable sphere of activity offering personal benefits for those who are actively engaged. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a charity organisation in the province of Alicante on the northern Costa Blanca, this paper examines the extensive functions that volunteering and charitable activities can offer British older migrants. The implementation of voluntary work within the specific context of retirement migration is identified as a multi-functional individual and societal resource. Volunteering for the retirees is described as a true means of adaptation to a new life context, and as a highly reflexive strategy of risk minimisation and self-realisation. This implies individual benefits and opens up possibilities of active ageing. Finally, volunteering will be analysed as a performative expression of transmigrants' cultural bifocality, reflecting both a high level of commitment to Spain as well as a specific feature of British community spirit and traditionalism. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

Lewis D.,Northern Territory Herbarium | Lewis D.,University of Queensland | Phinn S.,University of Queensland | Arroyo L.,Center for Human and Social science
Remote Sensing

Vegetation communities are traditionally mapped from aerial photography interpretation. Other semi-automated methods include pixel- and object-based image analysis. While these methods have been used for decades, there is a lack of comparative research. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of seven approaches to map vegetation communities in a northern Australia's tropical savanna environment. The seven approaches included: (1). aerial photography interpretation, (2). pixel-based image-only classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier), (3). pixel-based integrated classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier), (4). object-based image-only classification (nearest neighbor classifier), (5). object-based integrated classification (nearest neighbor classifier), (6). object-based image-only classification (step-wise ruleset), and (7). object-based integrated classification (step-wise ruleset). Approach 1 was applied to 1:50,000 aerial photography and approaches 2-7 were applied to SPOT5 and Landsat5 TM multispectral data. The integrated approaches (3, 5 and 7) included ancillary data (a digital elevation model, slope model, normalized difference vegetation index and hydrology information). The cost-effectiveness was assessed taking into consideration the accuracy and costs associated with each classification approach and image dataset. Accuracy was assessed in terms of overall accuracy and the costs were evaluated using four main components: field data acquisition and preparation, image data acquisition and preparation, image classification and accuracy assessment. Overall accuracy ranged from 28%, for the image-only pixel-based approach, to 67% for the aerial photography interpretation, while total costs ranged from AU$338,000 to AU$388,180 (Australian dollars), for the pixel-based image-only classification and aerial photography interpretation respectively. The most labor-intensive component was field data acquisition and preparation, followed by image data acquisition and preparation, classification and accuracy assessment. © 2013 by the authors. Source

Rodriguez-Laso A.,Matia Instituto Gerontologico | Abellan A.,Center for Human and Social science | Sancho M.,Matia Instituto Gerontologico | Pujol R.,Center for Human and Social science | And 2 more authors.
BMC Geriatrics

Background: The aim of this paper is to ascertain if the subjective perception of the economic situation of a household is associated with the prevalence of disability in old age, net of education level. Subjective economic perception is less non-response biased. Knowing if the self-perceived economic situation is related to disability over and above education level has important implications both for understanding the mechanisms that lead to disability and for selecting policies to reduce it. Methods. This is a transversal study based on the pilot of the ELES survey, which is a representative survey of non-institutionalised Spaniards aged 50 and over. Only individuals whose job income levels were fixed before becoming disabled were selected to avoid the main source of reverse causality. Disability was defined as having difficulty in carrying out any of 12 activities of daily living. Education level, difficulty in making ends meet, self-perceived relative economic position of the household, age, gender, psychological disposition, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were introduced as independent variables in binary logistic models. Results: The working sample is made up of 704 individuals of aged 60 and over. The subjective household economic situation, measured in two different ways, is strongly and consistently related with the prevalence of disability net of age, gender, education level and psychological disposition. After adjusting for age and gender, education level is no longer associated with disability. However, having economic difficulties has the same effect on disability prevalence as being 10 years older, or being a woman instead of a man. Conclusions: As the economic situation of the elderly is much easier to improve than their formal education, our findings support feasible interventions which could lead to a reduction in the prevalence of disability. © 2014 Rodriguez-Laso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Vilar del Hoyo L.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Isabel M.P.M.,Center for Human and Social science | Vega F.J.M.,Center for Human and Social science
European Journal of Forest Research

About 90% of the wildland fires occurred in Southern Europe are caused by human activities. In spite of these figures, the human factor hardly ever appears in the definition of operational fire risk systems due to the difficulty of characterising it. This paper describes two spatially explicit models that predict the probability of fire occurrence due to human causes for their integration into a comprehensive fire risk-mapping methodology. A logistic regression technique at 1 × 1 km grid resolution has been used to obtain these models in the region of Madrid, a highly populated area in the centre of Spain. Socio-economic data were used as predictive variables to spatially represent anthropogenic factors related to fire risk. Historical fire occurrence from 2000 to 2005 was used as the response variable. In order to analyse the effects of the spatial accuracy of the response variable on the model performance (significant variables and classification accuracy), two different models were defined. In the first model, fire ignition points (x, y coordinates) were used as response variable. This model was compared with another one (Kernel model) where the response variable was the density of ignition points and was obtained through a kernel density interpolation technique from fire ignition points randomly located within a 10 × 10 km grid, which is the standard spatial reference unit established by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs to report fire location in the national official statistics. Validation of both models was accomplished using an independent set of fire ignition points (years 2006-2007). For the validation, we used the area under the curve (AUC) obtained by a receiver-operating system. The first model performs slightly better with a value of AUC of 0.70 as opposed to 0.67 for the Kernel model. Wildland-urban interface was selected by both models with high relative importance. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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