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Booth J.L.,Center for Host Defense | Dybvig K.F.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Cooper T.K.,Center for Host Defense | Cooper T.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Wilson R.P.,Center for Host Defense
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2014

Mycoplasmosis is a frequent causative microbial agent of community-acquired pneumonia and has been linked to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The macrophage class A scavenger receptor (SRA) facilitates the clearance of noxious particles, oxidants, and infectious organisms by alveolar macrophages. We examined wildtype and SRA-/- mice, housed in either individually ventilated or static filter-top cages that were cycled with fresh bedding every 14 d, as a model of gene-environment interaction on the outcome of pulmonary Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. Intracage NH3 gas measurements were recorded daily prior to infection. Mice were intranasally infected with 1 × 107 cfu M. pulmonis UAB CT and evaluated at 3, 7, and 14 d after inoculation. Wildtype mice cleared 99.5% of pulmonary M. pulmonis by 3 d after infection but remained chronically infected through the study. SRA-/- mice were chronically infected with 40-fold higher mycoplasma numbers than were wildtype mice. M. pulmonis caused a chronic mixed inflammatory response that was accompanied with high levels of IL1β, KC, MCP1, and TNFα in SRA-/- mice, whereas pulmonary inflammation in WT mice was represented by a monocytosis with elevation of IL1β. Housing had a prominent influence on the severity and persistence of mycoplasmosis in SRA-/- mice. SRA-/- mice housed in static cages had an improved recovery and significant changes in surfactant proteins SPA and SPD compared with baseline levels. These results indicate that SRA is required to prevent chronic mycoplasma infection of the lung. Furthermore, environmental conditions may exacerbate chronic inflammation in M. pulmonis-infected SRA-/- mice. Copyright 2014 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

Wang Y.,Duke University | Voelker D.R.,National Jewish Health | Lugogo N.L.,Duke University | Wang G.,Center for Host Defense | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2011

Surfactant protein A (SP-A) regulates a variety of immune cell functions. We determined the ability of SP-A derived from normal and asthmatic subjects to modulate the inflammatory response elicited by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a pathogen known to exacerbate asthma. Fourteen asthmatic and 10 normal control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with airway brushing and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total SP-A was extracted from BAL. The ratio of SP-A1 to total SP-A (SP-A1/SP-A) and the binding of total SP-A to M. pneumonia membranes were determined. Airway epithelial cells from subjects were exposed to either normal or asthmatic SP-A before exposure to M. pneumoniae. IL-8 protein and MUC5AC mRNA were measured. Total BAL SP-A concentration did not differ between groups, but the percentage SP-A1 was significantly increased in BAL of asthmatic compared with normal subjects. SP-A1/SP-A significantly correlated with maximum binding of total SP-A to M. pneumoniae, but only in asthma. SP-A derived from asthmatic subjects did not significantly attenuate IL-8 and MUC5AC in the setting of M. pneumoniae infection compared with SP-A derived from normal subjects. We conclude that SP-A derived from asthmatic subjects does not abrogate inflammation effectively, and this dysfunction may be modulated by SPA1/ SP-A. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

PubMed | Center for Host Defense
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2011

Two human genes, SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2), encode surfactant protein A, a molecule of innate immunity and surfactant-related functions. Several genetic variants have been identified for both genes. These include nucleotide (nt) polymorphisms, as well as alternative splicing patterns at the 5 untranslated region (5UTR). Exon B (eB) is included in the 5UTR of most SP-A2, but not SP-A1 splice variants. We investigated the role of eB in the regulation of gene expression and translation efficiency. A luciferase (Luc) reporter gene was cloned downstream of the entire (AeBD) or eB deletion mutants (del_mut) of the SP-A2 5UTR, or heterologous 5UTRs containing the eB sequence, or a random sequence of equal length. The del_mut constructs consisted in consecutive deletions of five nucleotides (n = 8) within eB and the exon-exon junctions in the AeBD 5UTR. Luc activities and mRNA levels were compared after transfection of NCI-H441 cells. We found that 1) eB increased Luc mRNA levels when placed upstream of heterologous 5UTR sequences or the promoter region, regardless of its position and orientation; 2) translation efficiency of in vitro-generated mRNAs containing eB was higher than that of mRNAs without eB; and 3) the integrity of eB sequence is crucial for transcription and translation of the reporter gene. Thus eB 1) is a transcription enhancer, because it increases mRNA content regardless of position and orientation, 2) enhances translation when placed in either orientation within its natural 5UTR sequence and in heterologous 5UTRs, and 3) contains potential regulatory elements for both transcription and translation. We conclude that eB sequence and length are determinants of transcription and translation efficiency.

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