Heidelberg, Germany
Heidelberg, Germany

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Siebold R.,University of Heidelberg | Siebold R.,International Center for Hip | Takada T.,International Center for Hip | Takada T.,Hiroshima University | And 5 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2016

Purpose: To analyse the clinical, rotational and radiological (MRI) results of paediatric anatomical “C-shaped” double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with anteromedial and posteromedial bundle compared to single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction. Methods: Between 2008 and 2014, 57 consecutive patients received a paediatric ACL reconstruction with open physis and were allocated into two groups, according to the surgical procedure. Transepiphyseal SB technique was used until 2012 and DB consecutively thereafter. Follow-up consisted of a clinical evaluation with assessment of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, KT-1000 arthrometer evaluation, VAS Scores for satisfaction, MRI and testing of rotational stability using a robotic system. Results: The mean time from ACL reconstruction to follow-up was 48.1 ± 15.8 in the SB group (n = 17) and 23.1 ± 13.2 in the DB group (n = 16; p < 0.001). No differences were found in the subjective scores. Biomechanically, there were significant differences identified in the KT-1000 (p < 0.03) and total tibial axial rotation (p < 0.04) when evaluating the reconstructed knee only. Ten of 17 (59 %) of the SB patients had a Joint Play Area within the acceptable range of the median healthy knee value compared to 100 % in the DB group. Decreased patient satisfaction was associated with increased total tibial axial rotation. No growth disturbance was observed. Overall, 98 % of patients were reached and either examined or interviewed. Re-rupture rate was 3 of 21 (14.3 %) for DB and 9 of 35 (25.7 %) for SB. All but one re-ruptures (92 %) happened in the first 16 postoperative months independent of technique. Conclusions: The re-rupture rate after pre-adolescent ACL reconstruction is too high both historically and in this mixed cohort. Anatomical transepiphyseal DB ACL reconstruction with open physis may result in a reduction in this re-rupture rate, which may be related to a tighter control of the Joint Play Area. While subjective clinical results were similar between SB and DB, decreased patient satisfaction was associated with increased total tibial axial rotation in the entire cohort. Despite the need for two transepiphyseal tunnels in the DB technique, there did not appear to be an increased risk in growth plate disturbance. Transepiphyseal DB ACL reconstruction appears to be a reasonable alternative to current techniques in pre-adolescent children with an ACL rupture. Level of evidence: IV. © 2016, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).


Stinton S.K.,University Orthopedics | Siebold R.,University of Heidelberg | Siebold R.,International Center for Hip | Freedberg H.,Suburban Orthopaedics | And 3 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2016

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Methods: Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial–lateral translation and anterior–posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. Results: The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial–lateral translation and anterior–posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. Conclusions: The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee instability without relying on side-to-side comparison between knees. The translation of the proximal tibia is important information that must be considered in addition to axial rotation of the tibia when performing a dial test whether done manually or with a robotic device. Instrumented foot position cannot provide the same information. Level of evidence: IV. © 2016, The Author(s).


PubMed | International Center for Hip, University of Heidelberg and University Orthopedics
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA | Year: 2016

To analyse the clinical, rotational and radiological (MRI) results of paediatric anatomical C-shaped double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with anteromedial and posteromedial bundle compared to single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction.Between 2008 and 2014, 57 consecutive patients received a paediatric ACL reconstruction with open physis and were allocated into two groups, according to the surgical procedure. Transepiphyseal SB technique was used until 2012 and DB consecutively thereafter. Follow-up consisted of a clinical evaluation with assessment of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, KT-1000 arthrometer evaluation, VAS Scores for satisfaction, MRI and testing of rotational stability using a robotic system.The mean time from ACL reconstruction to follow-up was 48.1 15.8 in the SB group (n = 17) and 23.1 13.2 in the DB group (n = 16; p < 0.001). No differences were found in the subjective scores. Biomechanically, there were significant differences identified in the KT-1000 (p < 0.03) and total tibial axial rotation (p < 0.04) when evaluating the reconstructed knee only. Ten of 17 (59%) of the SB patients had a Joint Play Area within the acceptable range of the median healthy knee value compared to 100 % in the DB group. Decreased patient satisfaction was associated with increased total tibial axial rotation. No growth disturbance was observed. Overall, 98% of patients were reached and either examined or interviewed. Re-rupture rate was 3 of 21 (14.3%) for DB and 9 of 35 (25.7%) for SB. All but one re-ruptures (92%) happened in the first 16 postoperative months independent of technique.The re-rupture rate after pre-adolescent ACL reconstruction is too high both historically and in this mixed cohort. Anatomical transepiphyseal DB ACL reconstruction with open physis may result in a reduction in this re-rupture rate, which may be related to a tighter control of the Joint Play Area. While subjective clinical results were similar between SB and DB, decreased patient satisfaction was associated with increased total tibial axial rotation in the entire cohort. Despite the need for two transepiphyseal tunnels in the DB technique, there did not appear to be an increased risk in growth plate disturbance. Transepiphyseal DB ACL reconstruction appears to be a reasonable alternative to current techniques in pre-adolescent children with an ACL rupture.IV.

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