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Abbasi S.A.,Harvard University | Abbasi S.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ertel A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Shah R.V.,Harvard University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2013

Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with heart failure. However, in the current health care environment, use of a new imaging modality like CMR requires evidence for direct additive impact on clinical management. We sought to evaluate the impact of CMR on clinical management and diagnosis in patients with heart failure. Methods. We prospectively studied 150 consecutive patients with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤50% referred for CMR. Definitions for "significant clinical impact" of CMR were pre-defined and collected directly from medical records and/or from patients. Categories of significant clinical impact included: new diagnosis, medication change, hospital admission/discharge, as well as performance or avoidance of invasive procedures (angiography, revascularization, device therapy or biopsy). Results: Overall, CMR had a significant clinical impact in 65% of patients. This included an entirely new diagnosis in 30% of cases and a change in management in 52%. CMR results directly led to angiography in 9% and to the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention in 7%. In a multivariable model that included clinical and imaging parameters, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was the only independent predictor of "significant clinical impact" (OR 6.72, 95% CI 2.56-17.60, p=0.0001). Conclusions: CMR made a significant additive clinical impact on management, decision-making and diagnosis in 65% of heart failure patients. This additive impact was seen despite universal use of prior echocardiography in this patient group. The presence of LGE was the best independent predictor of significant clinical impact following CMR. © 2013 Abbasi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sayer G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices | Sayer G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Bhat G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices | Bhat G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cardiology Clinics | Year: 2014

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Targeting components of the RAAS has produced significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors remain first-line therapy for all patients with a reduced ejection fraction. Angiotensin-receptor blockers may be used instead of ACE inhibitors in patients with intolerance, or in conjunction with ACE inhibitors to further reduce symptoms. Recent data support broader indications for aldosterone antagonists in heart failure, and the combination of an ACE-inhibitor and aldosterone antagonist has become the preferred strategy for dual blockade of the RAAS. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Yost G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices | Gregory M.,Advocate Christ Medical Center | Bhat G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background: It has been shown that malnutrition affects clinical outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure and that nutrition status, as determined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), can be used as an independent predictor of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic utility of the short-form MNA (MNA-SF) as a surrogate to the MNA in patients with advanced heart failure. Methods: Data retrospectively gathered from nutrition assessments of 162 patients were analyzed. Results: As defined by the MNA, the cohort included 40 (24.7%) patients classified as malnourished, 106 (65.4%) classified as at risk, and 16 (9.9%) classified as well nourished. The mortality for the groups was 37.3%, 47.4%, and 40.5%, respectively. A linear regression showed strong correlation between the MNA and MNA-SF (r = 0.778, P <.0001). A significant difference was observed in survival between the undernourished state (at risk + malnourished) and the well-nourished state, as determined by the MNA-SF (P <.001). Conclusions: The MNA-SF is a rapid nutrition assessment that correlates strongly with the full-form MNA and is an independent predictor of mortality. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

Najjar S.S.,Medstar Heart Institute | Slaughter M.S.,University of Louisville | Pagani F.D.,University of Michigan | Starling R.C.,Cleveland Clinic | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation | Year: 2014

Background The HeartWare left ventricular assist device (HVAD, HeartWare Inc, Framingham, MA) is the first implantable centrifugal continuous-flow pump approved for use as a bridge to transplantation. An infrequent but serious adverse event of LVAD support is thrombus ingestion or formation in the pump. In this study, we analyze the incidence of pump thrombus, evaluate the comparative effectiveness of various treatment strategies, and examine factors pre-disposing to the development of pump thrombus. Methods The analysis included 382 patients who underwent implantation of the HVAD as part of the HeartWare Bridge to Transplant (BTT) and subsequent Continued Access Protocol (CAP) trial. Descriptive statistics and group comparisons were generated to analyze baseline characteristics, incidence of pump thrombus, and treatment outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess significant risk factors for developing pump thrombus. Results There were 34 pump thrombus events observed in 31 patients (8.1% of the cohort) for a rate of 0.08 events per patient-year. The incidence of pump thrombus did not differ between BTT and CAP. Medical management of pump thrombus was attempted in 30 cases, and was successful in 15 (50%). A total of 16 patients underwent pump exchange, and 2 underwent urgent transplantation. Five patients with a pump thrombus died after medical therapy failed, 4 of whom also underwent a pump exchange. Survival at 1 year in patients with and without a pump thrombus was 69.4% and 85.5%, respectively (p = 0.21). A multivariable analysis revealed that significant risk factors for pump thrombus included a mean arterial pressure > 90 mm Hg, aspirin dose ≤ 81 mg, international normalized ratio ≤ 2, and Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profile level of ≥ 3 at implant. Conclusions Pump thrombus is a clinically important adverse event in patients receiving an HVAD, occurring at a rate of 0.08 events per patient-year. Significant risk factors for pump thrombosis include elevated blood pressure and sub-optimal anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapies. This suggests that pump thrombus event rates could be reduced through careful adherence to patient management guidelines. © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Source

Yost G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices | Gregory M.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices | Bhat G.,Center for Heart Transplant and Assist Devices
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

Background: Malnutrition is known to negatively impact the clinical course of advanced heart failure and is associated with increased mortality following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Appropriate assessment of nutrition requirements in these patients is critical in their clinical care, yet there has been little discussion on how to best determine resting energy expenditure (REE) in the hospital setting. We investigated the use of indirect calorimetry in a group of patients with advanced heart failure. Materials and Methods: Results from preoperative indirect calorimetry testing in 98 patients undergoing evaluation for LVAD candidacy were collected. REE was compared with 10 predictive equations that estimated caloric need based on a range of patient-specific demographic and clinical variables. Results: This study enrolled 22 female and 76 male patients with a mean age of 59.4 ± 12.5 years, body mass index of 29.6 ± 6.0 kg/m2, and ejection fraction of 19.4 ± 6.6%. The average REE by indirect calorimetry in this group was 1610.0 ± 612.7 kcal/d. All predictive equations significantly overestimated REE. However, those equations intended for use in the critically ill demonstrated the greatest accuracy, with the Brandi equation achieving both the highest correlation (r = 0.605, P <.001) and the lowest standard error of the estimate (504.8 kcal/d). Conclusions: Indirect calorimetry may be reliably and safely used to determine caloric requirements in patients with advanced heart failure. The use of predictive equations based on demographic and clinical parameters appears to generate inaccurate estimations of REE in these patients. However, equations designed for use in critically ill patients better estimate nutrition requirements than those designed for healthy individuals. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

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