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PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Center for Healthy Aging, Purdue University and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: The Gerontologist | Year: 2017

This study examined how certified nursing assistants (CNAs) with unpaid family caregiving roles for children (double-duty-child caregivers), older adults (double-duty-elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers) differed from their nonfamily caregiving counterparts (workplace-only caregivers) on four work strain indicators (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and work climate for family sacrifices). The moderating effects of perceived family time adequacy were also evaluated.Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 972 CNAs working in U.S.-based nursing homes.Compared with workplace-only caregivers, double-and-triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion and pressure to make family sacrifices for the sake of work. Triple-duty caregivers also reported less job satisfaction. Perceived family time adequacy buffered double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions, as well as reversed triple-duty caregivers negative perceptions of the work climate.Perceived family time adequacy constitutes a salient psychological resource for double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers family time squeezes. Amid an unprecedented demand for long-term care and severe direct-care workforce shortages, future research on workplace factors that increase double-and-triple-duty caregiving CNAs perceived family time adequacy is warranted to inform long-term care organizations development of targeted recruitment, retention, and engagement strategies.


News Article | November 6, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Consuming dairy cheese instead of other sodium-laden foods may actually protect against some of sodium's effects on the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, according to researchers at Penn State. The researchers say the protection comes from antioxidant properties of dairy proteins in cheese. "This is a novel finding that may have implications for dietary recommendations. Newer dietary recommendations suggest limiting sodium, but our data suggest that eating sodium in the form of a dairy product, such as cheese, may be protective," said Lacy Alexander, associate professor of kinesiology and co-lead researcher on the project. "We are already aware that at the population level, people who eat more dairy typically have lower blood pressure," Alexander added. The data suggest that when sodium is consumed in cheese it does not have the negative vascular effects that researchers observed with sodium from non-dairy sources. The researchers interpret this to mean that the proteins and nutrients in cheese may be protecting the blood vessels from the short-term negative effects of sodium. However, it is not known if this protection extends over the long term. For the study, Alexander and colleagues fed participants dairy cheese, pretzels or soy cheese on five separate occasions, three days apart. They then compared the effects of each food on the cardiovascular system using a laser-Doppler, which shines a weak laser light onto the skin. The laser light reflects off red blood cells that flow through the vessels just under the skin, allowing researchers to measure how much the blood vessels dilate in response to skin warming and how much of that dilation is due to the production of nitric oxide, a gas that's naturally produced in the body to deliver messages between cells. The goal was to compare the effect of short-term dairy cheese consumption to sodium consumption from non-dairy sources. Soy served as an additional control to match the fat, salt and protein content from a dietary source that is not dairy-based. "We found that when our subjects ate a lot of sodium in cheese, they had better blood vessel function -- more blood flow -- compared to when they ate an equal amount of sodium from non-dairy sources -- in this case, pretzels and soy cheese," said Anna Stanhewicz, co-investigator and postdoctoral fellow in the Center for Healthy Aging. "We know that more red blood cells means more blood flow and more dilation. We observed that subjects had more nitric oxide-moderated dilation after eating dairy cheese, compared to after eating pretzels or soy cheese." The researchers reported their findings in the British Journal of Nutrition. Other researchers involved included Billie Alba, a pre-doctoral student in the Department of Kinesiology, and W. Larry Kenney, professor of kinesiology and Marie Underhill Noll Chair in Human Performance. An ongoing follow-up study tests the same effects over a longer period of time.


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

Family Caregiver Council: Celebrating Family Caregivers Is Just the Start SAN DIEGO, CA--(Marketwired - Nov 1, 2016) - As we celebrate National Family Caregivers Month this November, the Family Caregiver Council, made up of national leaders in the caregiving and active aging space, acknowledges the impact this complex and demanding role has on adult children and spouses and the need for expanded support initiatives. The theme this year for the national event is "Take Care to Give Care," which underscores the importance of paying attention to the stresses of caregiving -- and the family caregiver. With our rapidly aging baby boomer and senior population, the physical, emotional and financial burden on the 44 million U.S. family caregivers is not sustainable, the Council cautions. "A number of recent studies identified the growing burden on this group -- more than 18 percent of the population," says David Inns, CEO of GreatCall. "The data that is emerging from our new familycaregivercouncil.com website echoes this problem. Family caregivers need better approaches and support when it comes to work-life balance, sibling strife, and respite care, to name just some of the issues. The focus needs to move from person-centered care to person-and family-centered care in order to effect change." The majority of visitors to the Family Caregiver Council website are caring for parents and spouses, with most living with the person they care for. Whether they are sharing a home or caring for someone who lives on their own or in long term care, the issues are similar: managing complicated medical care, often hands-on without training, grappling with both their own and their family member's emotional and physical issues, dealing with finances and unanticipated caregiving expenses, lack of paid work leave and their own family. "While facing all those caregiving challenges, caregivers too often put themselves last. But only by taking care of yourself first can you be strong enough to take care of your loved one. You really do need to 'take care to give care'!" says John Schall, CEO of Caregiver Action Network. The recent study "Families Caring for an Aging America," conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, finds that the most effective interventions are tailored to caregivers' risks needs and preferences, so individual assessment is essential. The report notes the importance of assessing, training and counselling family caregivers and practicing self-care, from learning relaxation training to making use of respite care. The study also urges more support from government agencies in terms of policy and funding reform. "We were encouraged by the recommendations in the National Academies report, including the recommendation to identify a national strategy to support family caregivers," added Gail Gibson Hunt, President and CEO of the National Alliance for Caregiving. "We should continue to work together as a community to pursue a national plan for America's families." What can family caregivers do to take better care of themselves? The website offers strategies and advice for dealing with a multitude of issues. These include ambivalent feelings about their role, the challenges of long-distance caregiving, family friction, dementia, work, and even life after caregiving. "Taking care can take many forms," says Inns, "from knowing how to ask for help to what not to say when having difficult conversations with family members, to talking to the HR manager at work. The key is not to wait for the signs of stress to stare you in the face. It is also knowing what you need and where to find those resources even before you need them." The website recommends seven ways to manage caregiver stress: Family Caregiver Council members include: Scott Collins, CEO, Link-age; Danielle Glorioso, Executive Director, UCSD Center for Healthy Aging; Gail Hunt, President & CEO, National Alliance for Caregiving; David Inns, CEO, GreatCall; Margaret Kabat, National Director, Caregiver Support Program, Department of Veterans Affairs: Brooks Kenny, Strategic Advisor, Lotsahelpinghands; Sona Mehring, CEO, CaringBridge; John Schall, CEO, Caregiver Action Network; Kai Stinchcombe, Co-Founder & CEO, True Link; Sherwin Sheik, President & CEO, Care Linx; Louis Tenenbaum, Founder, Aging in Place Institute. The Council's advisors include Laurie Orlov, Founder, Aging in Place Technology Watch; Sally Abrahms, writer on aging and caregiving; and Mary Furlong, CEO, MFA. About GreatCall GreatCall is the leader in connected health for active aging. With health and safety solutions for older adults and their family caregivers, GreatCall's innovative suite of easy-to-use mobile products and award-winning approach to customer care helps aging consumers live more independent lives. Products and services include: Lively Wearable, Lively, Jitterbug Flip, Jitterbug Smart and health, safety and wellness apps Urgent Care, GreatCall Link, MedCoach and 5Star. GreatCall's products and services are sold nationwide at leading retailers as well as direct to consumers at 1-800-296-4993 and online at GreatCall.com. Service covers the U.S. GreatCall is headquartered in San Diego, CA. To learn more about GreatCall products and services, please visit www.GreatCall.com. This news release and other corporate assets are available at www.greatcall.com/newsroom or follow our news on Twitter @GreatCallinc and on Facebook at Facebook.com/greatcall. For information on the National Alliance for Caregiving, go to www.caregiving.org and for the Caregiver Action Network, to www.caregiveraction.org. Other member organizations include: http://www.caregiver.va.gov, www.carelinx.com, www.caringbridge.org, www.linkageconnect.com, www.lotsahelpinghands.com, www.louistenenbaum.com, www.sira.ucsd.edu, and www.truelinkfinancial.com


News Article | December 8, 2015
Site: phys.org

All science students learn how human cell division takes place. The copying or replication of the genome, the cell's DNA, has until now been believed only to take place during the so-called S-phase in the cell cycle. The new results show that this is not the case, because some regions of the genome are copied only after the cell enters the next crucial phase in the cell cycle called mitosis. "It has radically altered our views and requires that the textbook view of the human cell cycle be revised", says Professor Ian Hickson, Director of the Centre for Chromosome Stability and affiliated with the Center for Healthy Aging. The research project was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and was just published in the international scientific journal Nature. This unusual pathway for copying of the DNA occurs at specific regions of the human genome called fragile sites, and during mitosis, chromosomes in these fragile areas have a tendency to break. The fragile sites are conserved across species and are frequently associated with undesirable genome rearrangements in connection with the development of cancer. "We now know that these so-called 'chromosome breaks' are not actually broken, but instead comprise a region of DNA that is newly synthesized in mitosis. They appear broken because they are far less compacted than the rest of the chromosome," adds Professor Hickson. Cancer cells utilize this unusual form of DNA replication because one of the side effects of the genetic changes that cause cancer is so-called 'replication stress'. The scientists weren't specifically looking for this but fortunately they saw something very unusual when looking at human cancer cells under the microscope. "When we realized what was happening, it took us about 3 years to determine the mechanism underlying this phenomenon." "All science students learn that DNA is replicated in S-phase. Our results show that this is not the case, because some regions are replicated only after the cell enters mitosis," he adds. The scientists already know of two proteins that are essential for this unusual pathway for DNA replication, but now aim to define the full 'toolbox' of factors that are required. They can then proceed with studies to identify chemical compounds that block the process. This would constitute the first stage in identifying potential new treatments for cancer. "Although it has not yet been proven, it seems that the growth of many, or indeed most, cancers in humans is dependent on this process. Hence, the development of a reliable, therapeutic drugs strategy would likely have wide applicability in cancer therapy." "Our aim is to generate results that will lead to the development of new approaches to treatments of various types of cancer," concludes Professor Hickson. Explore further: Infradian oscillation of circadian genes in a mouse model of bipolar disorder More information: Sheroy Minocherhomji et al. Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis, Nature (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nature16139


Schure M.B.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System | Goins R.T.,Western Carolina University | Goins R.T.,Center for Healthy Aging
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective Our study objectives were to identify the primary sources of informal caregiving and to examine the association of depressive symptomatology with receipt of informal caregiving among a sample of community-dwelling older American Indians. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of older American Indians. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who are members of a federally recognized American Indian tribe in the Southeast United States. Measurements We collected information on the participant's primary caregiver, number of informal care hours received in the past week, depressive symptomatology, demographic characteristics, physical health status, and assistance need. Results Daughters, spouses, and sons were the most common informal primary caregivers with distinct differences by sex of those receiving care. Compared with participants with lower levels, those with a high level of depressive symptomatology received substantially greater hours of informal care (33.4 versus 11.5 hours per week). Conclusion Older American Indians with higher levels of depressive symptomatology received more informal caregiving than those with lower depressive symptomatology. The burden of caregiving of older adults is primarily shouldered by spouses and children with those who care for older adults with depressive symptomatology likely experiencing an even greater burden of care. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.


Wang H.,Gerontology and Palliative Medicine | Wang H.,Center for Healthy Aging | Karadge U.,University of Pittsburgh | Humphries W.H.,B and B Microscopes | And 3 more authors.
Methods | Year: 2014

Ratiometric fluorescent reporters have recently emerged a new technique to non-invasively measure aspects of cell physiology such as redox status, calcium levels, energy production, and NADH levels. These reporters consist of either a single or pair of fluorophores along with specific modifications, such as the addition of a protein domain which binds to a metabolite of interest, thereby producing gradual alterations in fluorescence in response to changes in the measured parameter. Measurement of the changes in fluorescence produces a quantitative read-out of the cellular environment. While these reporters were initially developed to easily visualize and track changes in cultured cells, several groups have adapted these reporters to use in Caenorhabditis elegans which opens a new avenue through which to explore cell physiology during development or aging, in response to changes in external environment, or in response to genetic manipulation. These reporters have the advantage of being easily targeted to any part of the worm, and because C. elegans is transparent both the reporters and changes in their fluorescence can be clearly observed in vivo. Here we discuss the application of ratiometric reporters to C. elegans, and outline a method to quantitatively measure changes in intracellular peroxide levels using the HyPer ratiometric reporter. However, these principles can be applied to alternate ratiometric reporters which are designed to measure either other chemical species or other cellular parameters. © 2014.


Cai L.,University of Pittsburgh | Wang D.,University of Pittsburgh | Fisher A.L.,Gerontology and Palliative Medicine | Fisher A.L.,Center for Healthy Aging | Wang Z.,University of Pittsburgh
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

The tumor suppressor EAF2 is regulated by androgen signaling and associated with prostate cancer. While EAF2 and its partner ELL have been shown to be members of protein complexes involved in RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation, the biologic roles for EAF2 especially with regards to the development of cancer remains poorly understood. We have previously identified the eaf-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans as the ortholog of EAF2, and shown that eaf-1 interacts with the ELL ortholog ell-1 to control development and fertility in worms. To identify genetic pathways that interact with eaf-1, we screened RNAi libraries consisting of transcription factors, phosphatases, and chromatin-modifying factors to identify genes which enhance the effects of eaf-1(tm3976) on fertility. From this screen, we identified lin-53, hmg-1.2, pha-4, ruvb-2 and set-6 as hits. LIN-53 is the C. Elegans ortholog of human retinoblastoma binding protein 4/7 (RBBP 4/7), which binds to the retinoblastoma protein and inhibits the Ras signaling pathway. We find that lin-53 showed a synthetic interaction with eaf-1(tm3976) where knockdown of lin-53 in an eaf-1(tm3976) mutant resulted in sterile worms. This phenotype may be due to cell death as the treated worms contain degenerated embryos with increased expression of the ced-1:GFP cell death marker. Further we find that the interaction between eaf-1 and lin-53/RBBP4/7 also exists in vertebrates, which is reflected by the formation of a protein complex between EAF2 and RBBP4/7. Finally, overexpression of either human EAF2 or RBBP4 in LNCaP cells induced the cell death while knockdown of EAF2 in LNCaP enhanced cell proliferation, indicating an important role of EAF2 in controlling the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Together these findings identify a novel physical and functional interaction between EAF2 and the Rb pathway. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Whitelaw N.,Center for Healthy Aging
Generations | Year: 2010

Evidence-based practice has a long tradition in health care and is now gaining traction in community-based organizations serving older adults. Since 2000, the National Council on Aging (NCOA) has worked with a variety of public and private national, state, and local organizations to promote healthy aging and foster the diffusion of evidence-based prevention programs. We seek to improve public policy, foster systems changes, and build the capacity of community-based organizations to achieve population-level improvements in the health and quality of life of older adults. © 2010 American Society on Aging.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Thinking over and over again about conflicts between your job and personal life is likely to damage both your mental and physical health, research from Oregon State University suggests. The study included more than 200 people, with results showing that "repetitive thought" was a pathway between work-family conflict and negative outcomes in six different health categories. As the term suggests, repetitive thought regarding work-family conflict refers to thinking repeatedly and attentively about the parts of your job and your personal life that clash with each other: for example, that late-afternoon meeting that prevents you from attending your son's baseball game. It's a maladaptive coping strategy that impedes daily recovery from stress. Kelly D. Davis of OSU's College of Public Health and Human Sciences was the lead author on the project funded by Pennsylvania State University's Social Science Research Institute and Penn State's Center for Healthy Aging. Davis, an assistant professor in the CPHHS School of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, says repetitive thought over work-family conflict keeps the stressor active and thus gets in the way of recovery. The study involved 203 adults ages 24 to 76. Each was in a romantic relationship, and roughly two-thirds had at least one child at home. Results showed a link between repetitive thought and negative outcomes in the health categories of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and health conditions. Positive affect is the extent to which a person subjectively experiences positive moods, and negative affect is the extent to which someone experiences negative moods. In this study, health conditions referred to a list of 22 conditions or problems, such as stroke or diabetes. Participants were scored based on how many times they answered yes. In the category of perceived health, participants were asked to rate their health on a five-point scale. "The main objective of this study was to test a conceptual model in which repetitive thought explained the association between work-family conflict and health," Davis said. "There was support for repetitive thought as a mediator in the association between work-family conflict and all six health outcomes." Repetitive thought is related to two other types of cognition that also can have adverse effects on health: rumination and worry. Rumination is persistent, redundant thinking that usually looks backward and is associated with depression; worry is also persistent, redundant thinking but tends to look forward and is typically more associated with anxious apprehension. "Practitioners can assist individuals facing the dual demands of work and family by reducing repetitive thought, and the related issues of worry and rumination," Davis said. One technique that can help is mindfulness: intentionally paying attention to the present-moment experience, such as physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts and imagery, in a nonjudgmental way. "You stay in the moment and acknowledge what you are feeling, recognize that those are real feelings, and process them, putting things in perspective," Davis said. "In the hypothetical baseball game example, the person could acknowledge the disappointment and frustration he was feeling as legitimate, honest feelings, and then also think in terms of 'these meeting conflicts don't happen that often, there are lots of games left for me to watch my child play, etc.'" Davis also points out that the burden for coping with work-family conflict shouldn't fall solely on the employee. "There needs to be strategies at the organizational level as well as the individual level," she said. "For example, a business could implement mindfulness training or other strategies in the workplace that make it a more supportive culture, one that recognizes employees have a life outside of work and that sometimes there's conflict. There can be a good return on investment for businesses for managing work-family stress, because positive experiences and feelings at home can carry over to work and vice versa." Work-family conflict is not just a women's issue or even just a parent's issue, Davis notes, given the number of workers who are caring for their own mother and/or father. "Planning ahead and having a backup plan, having a network to support one another, those things make you better able to reduce work-family conflict," Davis said. "But it shouldn't just rest on the shoulders of the individual. We need changes in the ways in which organizations treat their employees. We can't deny the fact that work and family influence one another, so by improving the lives of employees, you get that return on investment with positive work and family lives spilling over onto one another." Policy changes are particularly important to lower-income workers, Davis says. "Not all of us are so fortunate to have backup plans for our family responsibilities to stop us from repetitively thinking about work-family conflict," she said. "It's the organizational support and culture that matter most. Knowing there's a policy you can use without backlash maybe is almost as beneficial as actually using the policy. It's also important for managers and executives to be modeling that too, going to family events and scheduling time to fit all of their roles."


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Thinking over and over again about conflicts between your job and personal life is likely to damage both your mental and physical health, research from Oregon State University suggests. The study included more than 200 people, with results showing that "repetitive thought" was a pathway between work-family conflict and negative outcomes in six different health categories. As the term suggests, repetitive thought regarding work-family conflict refers to thinking repeatedly and attentively about the parts of your job and your personal life that clash with each other: for example, that late-afternoon meeting that prevents you from attending your son's baseball game. It's a maladaptive coping strategy that impedes daily recovery from stress. Kelly D. Davis of OSU's College of Public Health and Human Sciences was the lead author on the project funded by Pennsylvania State University's Social Science Research Institute and Penn State's Center for Healthy Aging. Davis, an assistant professor in the CPHHS School of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, says repetitive thought over work-family conflict keeps the stressor active and thus gets in the way of recovery. The study involved 203 adults ages 24 to 76. Each was in a romantic relationship, and roughly two-thirds had at least one child at home. Results showed a link between repetitive thought and negative outcomes in the health categories of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and health conditions. Positive affect is the extent to which a person subjectively experiences positive moods, and negative affect is the extent to which someone experiences negative moods. In this study, health conditions referred to a list of 22 conditions or problems, such as stroke or diabetes. Participants were scored based on how many times they answered yes. In the category of perceived health, participants were asked to rate their health on a five-point scale. "The main objective of this study was to test a conceptual model in which repetitive thought explained the association between work-family conflict and health," Davis said. "There was support for repetitive thought as a mediator in the association between work-family conflict and all six health outcomes." Repetitive thought is related to two other types of cognition that also can have adverse effects on health: rumination and worry. Rumination is persistent, redundant thinking that usually looks backward and is associated with depression; worry is also persistent, redundant thinking but tends to look forward and is typically more associated with anxious apprehension. "Practitioners can assist individuals facing the dual demands of work and family by reducing repetitive thought, and the related issues of worry and rumination," Davis said. One technique that can help is mindfulness: intentionally paying attention to the present-moment experience, such as physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts and imagery, in a nonjudgmental way. "You stay in the moment and acknowledge what you are feeling, recognize that those are real feelings, and process them, putting things in perspective," Davis said. "In the hypothetical baseball game example, the person could acknowledge the disappointment and frustration he was feeling as legitimate, honest feelings, and then also think in terms of 'these meeting conflicts don't happen that often, there are lots of games left for me to watch my child play, etc.'" Davis also points out that the burden for coping with work-family conflict shouldn't fall solely on the employee. "There needs to be strategies at the organizational level as well as the individual level," she said. "For example, a business could implement mindfulness training or other strategies in the workplace that make it a more supportive culture, one that recognizes employees have a life outside of work and that sometimes there's conflict. There can be a good return on investment for businesses for managing work-family stress, because positive experiences and feelings at home can carry over to work and vice versa." Work-family conflict is not just a women's issue or even just a parent's issue, Davis notes, given the number of workers who are caring for their own mother and/or father. "Planning ahead and having a backup plan, having a network to support one another, those things make you better able to reduce work-family conflict," Davis said. "But it shouldn't just rest on the shoulders of the individual. We need changes in the ways in which organizations treat their employees. We can't deny the fact that work and family influence one another, so by improving the lives of employees, you get that return on investment with positive work and family lives spilling over onto one another." Policy changes are particularly important to lower-income workers, Davis says. "Not all of us are so fortunate to have backup plans for our family responsibilities to stop us from repetitively thinking about work-family conflict," she said. "It's the organizational support and culture that matter most. Knowing there's a policy you can use without backlash maybe is almost as beneficial as actually using the policy. It's also important for managers and executives to be modeling that too, going to family events and scheduling time to fit all of their roles."

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