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Rao S.R.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Rao S.R.,Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research
Annals of Family Medicine | Year: 2014

When my mother fell ill while visiting me in the United States, I had the opportunity to compare costs of surgical cardiac care in the United States and India. I faced challenges in making well-informed decisions in the United States due to the lack of cost transparency and the minimal flexibility offered in choice of care, whereas in India costs are readily available and allow most people to freely choose their preferred type of care. © 2014 by the Annals of Family Medicine, Inc. Source

Gillespie C.,Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2015

Those who undergo health screening often experience physical and emotional effects as a result of the screening process. However, the effects of health screening go beyond these physical and mental complications, often having profound social effects for those who are screened. This study explores the social implications of health screening for people who undergo it and are designated as being at risk for potential disease. Through a qualitative analysis of the experiences of individuals with elevated cholesterol levels and men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, this research offers a description of the experience of being at risk, identifying three primary components: increased medical contact, a restructuring of everyday routines and altered social relationships. Whereas the at-risk health status engendered by current clinical approaches to screening and surveillance has been characterised as proto-disease, this study develops a companion definition of proto-illness to characterise the social experience of life with an identified health risk. Those who are at risk act in ways that are similar to those who are ill. The concept of proto-illness implies that the experience of risk is parallel to the experience of illness and contributes to the sociology of medical screening by establishing a much needed bridge between the two experiences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Mehta A.B.,Boston University | Syeda S.N.,Boston University | Bajpayee L.,Boston University | Cooke C.R.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

Rationale: National trends in tracheostomy for mechanical ventilation (MV) patients are not well characterized. Objectives: To investigate trends in tracheostomy use, timing, and outcomes in the United States. Methods: We calculated estimates of tracheostomy use and outcomes from the National Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2012. We used hierarchical models to determine factors associated with tracheostomy use among MV patients. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 1,352,432 adults who received tracheostomy from 1993 to 2012 (9.1% of MV patients). Tracheostomy was more common in surgical patients, men, and racial/ethnic minorities. Age-adjusted incidence of tracheostomy increased by 106%, rising disproportionately to MV use. Among MV patients, tracheostomy rose from 6.9% in 1993 to 9.8% in 2008, and then it declined to 8.7% in 2012 (P < 0.0001). Increases in tracheostomy use were driven by surgical patients (9.5% in 1993; 15.0% in 2012; P < 0.0001), with little change among nonsurgical patients (5.8% in 1993; 5.9% in 2012; P < 0.0001). Over time, tracheostomies were performed earlier (median, 11 d in 1998; 10 d in 2012; P < 0.0001), whereas hospital length of stay declined (median, 39 d in 1993; 26 d in 2012; P < 0.0001), discharges to long-term facilities increased (40.1% vs. 71.9%; P < 0.0001), and hospital mortality declined (38.1% vs. 14.7%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Over the past two decades, tracheostomy use rose substantially in the United States until 2008, when use began to decline. The observed dramatic increase in discharge of tracheostomy patients to long-term care facilities may have significant implications for clinical care, healthcare costs, policy, and research. Future studies should include long-term facilities when analyzing outcomes of tracheostomy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Luger T.M.,Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research | Suls J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Vander Weg M.W.,University of Iowa | Vander Weg M.W.,Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation Center
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2014

Introduction: Our objective was to use meta-analytic techniques to assess the strength of the overall relationship and role of potential moderators in the association between smoking and depression in adults. Methods: Two popular health and social science databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) were systematically searched to identify studies which examined the association between adult smoking behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive symptoms. A total of 85 relevant studies were selected for inclusion. Studies were analyzed using a linear mixed effects modeling package ("lme4" for R) and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program version 2. Results: Multiple nested linear mixed-effects models were compared. The best fitting models were those that included only random study effects and smoking status. In cross-sectional studies, current smokers were more likely to be depressed than never smokers (OR= 1.50, CI= 1.39-1.60), and current smokers were more likely to be depressed than former smokers (OR= 1.76, CI= 1.48-2.09). The few available prospective studies, that used the requisite statistical adjustments, also showed smokers at baseline had greater odds of incident depression at follow-up than never smokers (OR= 1.62, CI= 1.10-2.40). Conclusions: In cross-sectional studies, smoking was associated with a nearly two-fold increased risk of depression relative to both never smokers and former smokers. In the smaller set of prospective studies, the odds of subsequent depression were also higher for current than never smokers. Attesting to its robustness, the relationship between smoking and depression was exhibited across several moderators. Findings could help health care providers to more effectively anticipate co-occurring health issues of their patients. Several methodological recommendations for future research are offered. © 2014. Source

Swan H.,Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research
Journal of Drug Issues | Year: 2015

Individuals with a drug use history often experience drug use relapse when they are released from incarceration. This article explores the processes by which a sample of adults experienced relapse post-incarceration and consequently experienced HIV treatment interruption. Data are from in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive adults who have a selfreported history of drug use. Findings reveal that each participant relapsed post-incarceration. Some participants relapsed immediately after release; others remained drug free until something "triggered" a relapse. Once a participant relapsed, factors that contributed to HIV treatment interruption included re-incarceration, a lack of concern for HIV care, and the overlap of symptoms between addiction and HIV infection. The relationship between drug use and HIV treatment interruption was exacerbated when the participant reported also having a mental health disorder. Cessation of drug use facilitated HIV treatment engagement for participants. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

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