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Pereira-da-Silva L.,New University of Lisbon | Pereira-da-Silva L.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central | Rego C.,University of Porto | Rego C.,Center for Health Technology and Services Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Marques D.R.,University of Aveiro | Marques D.R.,Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life science | Gomes A.A.,University of Aveiro | Gomes A.A.,Center for Health Technology and Services Research | And 2 more authors.
Sleep and Biological Rhythms | Year: 2016

In this study, our aim was to explore the relationship between sleep quality/quantity, chronotype, pre-sleep arousal, arousability, stress, coping, neuroticism, extraversion, mood/affect, perceived health and sleep loss due to worry in college students. A total of 713 students (mean age 19.29 ± 1.256 years) completed a set of questionnaires that assessed sleep loss over worry (item from the General Health Questionnaire), other sleep–wake aspects (e.g., habitual sleep duration, sleep needs, sleep depth, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, night awakenings, daytime sleepiness, sleep flexibility, sleep reactivity to stress), pre-sleep arousal (cognitive/somatic arousal), arousability, coping, neuroticism, extraversion, perceived physical/mental health, academic stress and positive/negative affect. Sleep disturbance due to worry was reported by 40.6 % of female and 19.2 % of male students. It was significantly correlated with perceived health and the majority of sleep–wake variables. Almost all correlations between the psychological traits under study and sleep loss over worry were significant. Results from the stepwise regression analyses, however, showed that only cognitive arousal (β = .353; p < .001), perceived academic stress (β = .129; p < .01), arousability (β = .127; p < .01), worry tendency (β = .153; p < .001), gender (β = .118; p < .01) and perceived physical health (β = −.093; p < .01) were significant predictors of sleep loss over worry. Together, these variables accounted for 40.3 % of the total variance in sleep disturbance due to worry. Our findings suggest that cognitive arousal, academic stress, arousability, tendency to worry, gender and perceived physical health may be important determinants of sleep loss over worry. These results may have important implications for prevention and intervention to improve sleep quality in young adults. © 2016, Japanese Society of Sleep Research. Source

Silva A.G.,University of Aveiro | Silva A.G.,Center for Health Technology and Services Research | Queiros A.,University of Aveiro | Alvarelhao J.,University of Aveiro | Rocha N.P.,University of Aveiro
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

Aim: To translate and validate a European Portuguese version of the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA) questionnaire.Methods: The original English version of RAPA was translated into Portuguese following standardized procedures. Fifty-five Portuguese older adults were assessed in two sessions, approximately one week apart. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by weighted kappa (K). Construct validity was evaluated by Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the RAPA and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the short physical performance battery (SPPB) (gait and chair stands tests, and total score); and by the Mann-Whitney U test between participants with and without depression and able and unable to complete the SPPB balance test.Results: Weighted K was 0.67 (95% CI=0.52–0.81) for reliability. A significant correlation was found between the RAPA and WHODAS 2.0 (rs=–0.47, p<0.01), gait test (rs=–0.45, p<0.01) and total SPPB score (rs=0.45, p<0.01). Participants able to complete the SPPB balance test had higher levels of physical activity than those unable (3.25±1.23 vs 2.37±1.30, p<0.05), and those without depression had higher levels of physical activity than those with depression (3.24±1.23 vs 2.50±1.34, p<0.05).Conclusions: The European Portuguese version of the RAPA questionnaire seems valid. However, its reliability requires further investigation. © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd. Source

Martins I.,University of Porto | Carvalho P.,University of Porto | De Vries M.G.,University of Groningen | De Vries M.G.,Brains On Line BV | And 6 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2015

The dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) plays a key role in facilitation of nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in GABA-mediated control of the DRt focusing on the role of local GABAB receptors. First, we used in vivo microdialysis to study the release of GABA in the DRt during the course of the formalin test. An increase of GABA levels in comparison with baseline values was detected in the second phase of the test. Because we previously showed that GABAB receptors are expressed by opioidergic DRt neurons, which respond to nociceptive stimuli and inhibit spinally projecting DRt neurons involved in descending pronociception, we then interfered with local GABAB receptors using gene transfer and pharmacological approaches. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GABAB1a expression decreased nociceptive responses during the second phase of the test. Local administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 also decreased nociceptive responses in the second phase of the test, whereas the opposite was detected after injection of the GABAB agonist baclofen. Finally, we determined the GABAergic afferents of the DRt, namely those arising from its main brain afferents, which are located at the telencephalon and diencephalon. For that purpose, we combined retrograde tract-tracing from the DRt with immunodetection of glutamate decarboxylase, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme. The higher numbers of retrogradely labelled glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons were located at insular, somatosensory, and motor cortices. Collectively, the results suggest that GABA acting on GABAB receptors may enhance pain facilitation from the DRt during inflammatory pain. © 2015 International Association for the Study of Pain. Source

Serrano M.,Portuguese Oncology Institute | Kikuste I.,University of Latvia | Kikuste I.,Digestive Diseases Center | Dinis-Ribeiro M.,Center for Health Technology and Services Research | Dinis-Ribeiro M.,Portuguese Oncology Institute
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

The most immediate strategy for improving survival of gastric cancer patients is secondary prevention through diagnosis of early gastric cancer either through screening or follow-up of individuals at high risk. Endoscopy examination is therefore of paramount importance and two general steps are to be known in assessing gastric mucosa - detection and characterization. Over the past decade, the advent of advanced endoscopic imaging technology led to diverse descriptions of these modalities reporting them to be useful in this setting. In this review, we aim at summarizing the current evidence on the use of advance imaging in individuals at high-risk (i.e., advance stages of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia) and in those harbouring neoplastic lesions, and address its potential usefulness providing the readers a framework to use in daily practice. Further research is also suggested. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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