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New Bedford, MA, United States

Gould M.K.,Kaiser Permanente | Donington J.,New York University | Lynch W.R.,University of Michigan | Mazzone P.J.,Cleveland Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013

Objectives: The objective of this article is to update previous evidence-based recommendations for evaluation and management of individuals with solid pulmonary nodules and to generate new recommendations for those with nonsolid nodules. Methods: We updated prior literature reviews, synthesized evidence, and formulated recommendations by using the methods described in the "Methodology for Development of Guidelines for Lung Cancer" in the American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines, 3rd ed. Results: We formulated recommendations for evaluating solid pulmonary nodules that measure > 8 mm in diameter, solid nodules that measure ≤ 8 mm in diameter, and subsolid nodules. The recommendations stress the value of assessing the probability of malignancy, the utility of imaging tests, the need to weigh the benefits and harms of different management strategies (nonsurgical biopsy, surgical resection, and surveillance with chest CT imaging), and the importance of eliciting patient preferences. Conclusions: Individuals with pulmonary nodules should be evaluated and managed by estimating the probability of malignancy, performing imaging tests to better characterize the lesions, evaluating the risks associated with various management alternatives, and eliciting their preferences for management. Copyright © by the American College of Chest Physicians 2013.

Tukey M.H.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Center for Health Quality
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Little is known about trends in the utilization or complication rates of transbronchial lung biopsy, particularly in community hospitals. Methods: We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Florida State Inpatient and State Ambulatory Surgical Databases to assess trends in transbronchial lung biopsy utilization in adults from 2000 to 2009. We subsequently calculated population based estimates of complications associated with transbronchial lung biopsy (iatrogenic pneumothorax and procedure-related hemorrhage) and identified characteristics associated with complications. Results: From 2000 to 2009, the age-adjusted rate of transbronchial biopsies per 100,000 adults in Florida decreased by 25% from 74 to 55 (p < 0.0001), despite stability in the overall utilization of bronchoscopy. Analysis of 82,059 procedures revealed that complications associated with transbronchial biopsy were uncommon and stable over the study period, with 0.97% (95% CI 0.94-1.01%) of procedures complicated by pneumothorax, 0.55% (95% CI 0.52-0.58%) by pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement, and 0.58% (95% CI 0.55-0.61%) by procedure-related hemorrhage. Patients with COPD (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.31-1.75) and women (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.52) were at increased risk for pneumothorax, while renal failure (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.10-3.87), cirrhosis (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.52), older age (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.25) and female sex (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.17-1.68) were associated with higher risk of procedure-related hemorrhage. Conclusions: Utilization of transbronchial lung biopsy is decreasing relative to the overall use of bronchoscopy. Nevertheless, it remains a safe procedure with low risk of complications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vimalananda V.G.,Center for Health Quality
Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health | Year: 2011

We sought to compare lipid-lowering therapy among female and male veterans with diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We conducted a cross-sectional study of veterans serviced by the Veterans Health Administration in 2006 who had both diabetes and hyperlipidemia and compared all female patients to age- and facility-matched males. We compared proportions of patients with any prescription for lipid-lowering therapy in the year and, among those with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL >100 mg/dL) and no prior treatment, we compared initiation of lipid-lowering therapy. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for race, VA eligibility, health care utilization, cardiovascular diseases, mental health conditions, and a comprehensive list of other comorbidities. We also performed the analysis stratified by age. Women had higher LDL levels than men (110 ± 38 vs. 101 ± 36 mg/dL) and were less likely to be receiving lipid-lowering therapy (80% vs. 84%; AOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76-0.82) or to be initiated on such therapy (37% vs. 42%; AOR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.90). Differences were greatest in the youngest women (<45 years old) for both any lipid-lowering therapy (61% vs. 75%; AOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.45-0.56) and initiation of therapy (26% vs. 38%; AOR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.42-0.73). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the risk estimates. Women veterans with diabetes and hyperlipidemia receive less aggressive lipid-lowering therapy than men, especially among younger age groups. This disparity is of concern, because early intervention to control hyperlipidemia can reduce the later burden of cardiovascular disease among diabetic women. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

Walkey A.J.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Center for Health Quality
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2013

Rationale: Although evidence supporting use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is strong, evidence varies widely for other causes of acute respiratory failure. Objectives: To compare utilization trends and outcomes associated with NIV in patients with and without COPD. Methods:We identified 11,659,668 cases of acute respiratory failure from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during years 2000 to 2009 and compared NIV utilization trends and failure rates for cases with or without a diagnosis of COPD. Measurements and Main Results: The proportion of patients withCOPDwho received NIV increased from 3.5%in 2000 to 12.3% in 2009 (250% increase), and the proportion of patients without COPD who received NIV increased from 1.2% in 2000 to 6.0% in 2009 (400% increase).The rateof increase in theuseofNIVwas significantly greater for patients without COPD (18.1% annual change) than for patients with COPD (14.3% annual change; P = 0.02). Patients without COPD were more likely to have failure of NIV requiring endotracheal intubation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.15- 1.22; P < 0.0001). Patients in whom NIV failed had higher hospital mortality than patients receiving mechanical ventilation without a preceding trial of NIV (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.17; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The use of NIV during acute respiratory failure has increased at a similar rate for all diagnoses, regardless of supporting evidence. However, NIV is more likely to fail in patients without COPD, and NIV failure is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.

Walkey A.J.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Boston University | Wiener R.S.,Center for Health Quality | Wiener R.S.,Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice | And 2 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: In 2001, a randomized trial showed decreased mortality with early, goal-directed therapy in septic shock, a strategy later recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Placement of a central venous catheter is necessary to administer goal-directed therapy. We sought to evaluate nationwide trends in: 1) central venous catheter utilization and 2) the association between early central venous catheter insertion and mortality in patients with septic shock. DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed the proportion of septic shock cases receiving an early (day of admission) central venous catheter and the odds of hospital mortality associated with receiving early central venous catheter from years 1998 to 2001 compared with 2002 to 2009. SETTING: Non-federal acute care hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2009. PATIENTS: A total of 203,481 (population estimate: 999,545) patients admitted through an emergency department with principal diagnosis of septicemia and secondary diagnosis of shock. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: From 1998 to 2009, population-adjusted rates of septic shock increased from 12.6 cases per 100,000 U.S. adults to 78 cases per 100,000. During this time, age-adjusted hospital mortality associated with septic shock declined from 40.4% to 31.4%. Early central venous catheter insertion increased from 5.7% (95% confidence interval 5.1% to 6.3%) to 19.2% (95% confidence interval 18.7% to 19.5%) cases with septic shock, with an increased rate of early central venous catheter placement identified after 2007. The rate of decline in age-adjusted hospital mortality was significantly greater for patients who received an early central venous catheter (-4.2% per year, 95% confidence interval -3.2, -4.2%) as compared with no central venous catheter (-2.9% per year, 95% confidence interval -2.3, -3.5%; p = 0.016). Hospital mortality associated with early central venous catheter insertion significantly decreased from a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.14-1.45) prior to 2001 to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84-0.90) after 2001. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of a central venous catheter early in septic shock has increased three-fold since 1998. The mortality associated with early central venous catheter insertion decreased after publication of evidence-based instructions for central venous catheter use. Copyright © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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