Center for Grain Food Innovation

Kensington, Australia

Center for Grain Food Innovation

Kensington, Australia
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Villarino C.B.J.,Curtin University Australia | Jayasena V.,Curtin University Australia | Coorey R.,Curtin University Australia | Chakrabarti-Bell S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Patel M.J.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Patel M.J.,CSIRO | Ng J.H.Y.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Ng J.H.Y.,CSIRO | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012

Chemical leaveners are used in doughs to generate carbon dioxide, as an alternative to yeast, in making a range of bakery products. In this study, the effects of fungal α-amylase and ascorbic acid on chemically leavened doughs were followed by measuring dough extensibility, true rheological properties, the amount of free liquid in doughs following ultracentrifugation and the quality of baked products. As with yeasted doughs, the bake qualities of chemically leavened doughs also improved in the presence of fungal α-amylases. The bake qualities were not affected when the equivalent amount of ascorbic acid was added. The differences in dough formulations were detected from measurements of true rheological properties, not from extensibilities of doughs. The amount of free liquid was larger and of lower viscosity in doughs containing α-amylases. The properties of the continuous liquid phase were found to be important in defining the rheological and baking qualities of doughs. © 2012.

Wang S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Wang S.,CSIRO | Austin P.,CSIRO | Bell S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Bell S.,CSIRO
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

Bread has a foam-like structure, but to date there is little information about the morphology of void structure in breads in three dimensions. In this paper, permeability testing and analysis of computer aided micro-tomography data were used to investigate the structure of breads as a function of connectivity of voids in a range of breads. The findings were related to bread properties obtained via material testing. Results indicated that a single, massively interconnected, open cell was responsible for approximately 99% of bread's total porosity. Closed pores are also present with the number and average volume of closed pores significantly affecting strengths of bread crumbs. Bread behaved similarly to foams described by Gibson and Ashby (1988). The role of open and closed pores in affecting bread toughness and texture requires further investigation via structural-mechanical models. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chakrabarti-Bell S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Chakrabarti-Bell S.,CSIRO | Wang S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Wang S.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2013

Traditionally, chapattis are flatbreads made from atta (wholemeal Indian wheat flour). Non-atta chapattis have not been popular due to substandard product quality. To investigate what makes atta special for making chapattis, products were made using atta, Australian wholemeal wheat flour, gluten-free lupin flour, and a blend of lupin and wheat flours. Doughs were characterised by measuring strain-hardening and elastic recovery in compression and also bubble structures via 3-D X-ray micro-tomography. Amethod was developed to identify and separate bran, which appears as bubbles, in scans of doughs.Results highlighted the following: (1) elasticity of doughs is important for stabilising bubbles during rolling and baking, (2) atta doughs are low in strain-hardening but high in elasticity and retain bubbles the best after baking, and (3) lupins can be used to increase elasticity of Australian wheat flour doughs and to make gluten-free chapattis. •Elasticity of doughs is important for stability of gas bubbles in chapatti doughs.•Strain-hardening in compression relates to firmness of doughs, not to elasticity.•New methods to characterise dough's rheology and porosity are reported.•Addition of lupins enhance the elasticity of Australian wheat flour doughs. © 2013.

Patel M.J.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Chakrabarti-Bell S.,CSIRO
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2013

Current practices in testing flours call for measuring dough strength, not elasticity. Sheeting is a common method for processing developed doughs, the elasticity of which governs dough's sheetability as dough springs back exiting rollers. To characterise dough sheetability, a study was conducted testing 18 different doughs made from six different flours. Each dough was sheeted using an instrumented sheeter and data for exit sheet thickness and roll forces were captured under a range of sheeting conditions. The true rheological properties of doughs were measured and used to calibrate the ABBM constitutive model for dough (1). Numerical simulations of sheeting operations were conducted; the ℝ2 coefficients between measured and predicted sheet thicknesses and roll forces (vertical and horizontal) were nearly all >0.9. Relaxation times were derived from dough model parameters and revealed that flour quality for dough elasticity should be assessed by examining moisture effects on dough relaxation time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang S.,Center for Grain Food Innovation | Wang S.,CSIRO | Karrech A.,CSIRO | Regenauer-Lieb K.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2013

Bread is a foam and the softness of breads is an important quality attribute. For many non-food foams, digital environments have been implemented which can be used to characterize the structure to optimize products for specific functionalities. For breads, structure based models that incorporate pore structure, which is comprised of the pore distribution and overall porosity, with solid matrix properties are lacking. For the first time, such structure based models have been stochastically, or randomly, generated for a range of breads using previously published X-ray microtomography data (Wang et al., 2011). The Weibull probability distribution has been used to characterize closed pore distributions, stochastic probability theory has been used to obtain representative porosities, and digital bread crumb models which incorporate pore structure have been created. Digital bread crumbs have been compared against real world samples via visual texture and small strain compression experiments. Digital bread crumbs exhibited similarities to real products in terms of cell wall thicknesses as seen from surface appearance. Results from digital compression experiments using finite element analysis showed differences in Young's moduli between breads can be attributed to both differences in pore distribution as well as porosity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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