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Rockville, MD, United States

St Louis M.,Center for Global Health
Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) | Year: 2012

Awareness of the importance of global health surveillance increased in the latter part of the 20th century with the global emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and novel strains of influenza. In the first decade of the 21st century, several events further highlighted global shared interests in and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Bioterrorist use of anthrax spores in 2001 raised awareness of the value of public health surveillance for national security. The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, re-emergence of a panzootic of avian influenza A H5N1 in 2005, and the sudden emergence of pandemic H1N1 in North America in 2009 all highlighted the importance of shared global responsibility for surveillance and disease control. In particular, in 2003, SARS precipitated changes in awareness of the world's collective economic vulnerability to epidemic shocks. Source


The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Black S.,Center for Global Health | Margarit I.,Novartis | Rappuoli R.,Novartis
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Group B streptococcal disease is a common cause of bacterial sepsis in newborns and is often fatal. To protect these babies, a vaccination program must target pregnant women for immunization so that the resulting antibodies can be passively delivered from the mother to the fetus. Scientists met in Siena, Italy, to discuss potential approaches to maternal immunization for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease. Source


Black S.B.,Center for Global Health | Plotkin S.A.,University of Pennsylvania
Vaccine | Year: 2012

The incidence and serogroup distribution of meningococcal disease vary by country and over time. In the United States, the annual incidence has been 0.5-1.1/100,000 or about 1400-2800 cases annually with the highest incidence being in infants less than six months of age [1]. Given the availability of conjugate vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y and the possible future availability of a group B vaccine, there is now the potential to effectively control meningococcal disease globally. The question then arises as to how public health policy can best serve this goal. MCV-D (Menactra) is not immunogenic in the first six months of life. For this reason, it has been proposed that immunization with this vaccine begin at nine months of age with a second dose at 12 months. This proposal would rely upon indirect or " herd protection" to protect young infants with the highest disease incidence. A second vaccine, MCV-CRM (Menveo), is immunogenic in the first months of life and is under consideration by the FDA for use in infants two months of age and older. MCV-CRM could provide direct protection of this high risk group, but three primary doses plus a toddler booster are required for this approach. In developing public health recommendations to protect infants, policy makers must weigh the additional cost of immunizing with four doses versus the possibility that relying on herd protection using a lower cost immunization schedule beginning at nine months of age may leave young infants unprotected. Optimal control of meningococcal disease will require both the public will and public policy to best serve this goal. The decision as to what ages to target and which schedules to use should not only take into account the cost of the program, but also the severity of the disease and the high level public concern regarding meningococcal disease. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Date A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Modi S.,Center for Global Health
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), making improved prevention and treatment of HIV-associated TB critical to ensuring long-term survival of PLHIV. TB screening among PLHIV is central to implementation of the World Health Organization's 3 I's interventions for reducing the impact of the TB and HIV syndemics. Effective TB screening will result in the identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB disease (ie, those with a positive symptom screen who require appropriate evaluation, including the use of diagnostic tools such as the Xpert MTB/RIF assay) and those eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy (ie, those who have a negative clinical symptom screen or who have a positive screen but are found not to have TB disease). Identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB also facilitates implementation of basic administrative measures for TB infection control, including fast tracking of coughing patients and separation from noncoughing PLHIV to reduce TB transmission. By contributing to the early diagnosis of TB disease among PLHIV, TB screening is also critical to facilitate early initiation of antiretroviral treatment among PLHIV diagnosed with TB disease who might not otherwise be eligible for antiretroviral treatment based on CD4 count or clinical staging. TB screening thus serves as a gateway for multiple TB/HIV interventions and is an integral part of routine clinical services for PLHIV at each clinic visit. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

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