Rockville, MD, United States
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Merck, ein führendes Wissenschafts- und Technologieunternehmen, hat heute zusammen mit der American Cancer Society (ACS) einen Bericht veröffentlicht, aus dem hervorgeht, dass die vier häufigsten krebsbedingten Todesursachen bei Frauen weltweit in vielen Fällen vermeidbar sind und sich nach Früherkennung oft erfolgreich behandeln ließen. Der Bericht zur weltweiten Krankheitslast durch Krebs bei Frauen ("The Global Burden of Cancer in Women") ist das erste konkrete Ergebnis einer innovativen Partnerschaft zwischen Merck und der American Cancer Society, deren Schwerpunkte die Bewusstseinsbildung für Krebserkrankungen bei Frauen und eine stärke Vertretung ihrer Interessen sind. "Wir sind stolz, gemeinsam mit der American Cancer Society als Partner die Auswirkungen von Krebserkrankungen auf Frauen in aller Welt in Angriff zu nehmen", sagte Belén Garijo, Mitglied der Geschäftsleitung von Merck und Leiterin des Unternehmensbereichs Healthcare. "Unsere Kooperation ist eine beispiellose öffentlich-private Partnerschaft, die auf der Erkenntnis beruht, dass kein Sektor diese Herausforderung allein bewältigen kann. Verbessert man die Gesundheit und das Wohlbefinden von Frauen, setzen sich die positiven Effekte in den unterschiedlichen Lebensbereichen fort. Wenn es Frauen besser geht, profitieren auch die Gemeinschaften, in denen wir alle leben, davon." Die Erhebung untersucht die zunehmende Krankheitslast durch Krebserkrankungen bei Frauen in Ländern niedrigen und mittleren Einkommens und zeigt mögliche Lösungen auf, wie die wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Krebs für die betroffenen Frauen, ihre Familien und das öffentliche Gesundheitssystem minimiert werden könnten. Krebs ist die zweithäufigste Todesursache bei Frauen, Brust-, Darm-, Lungen- und Gebärmutterkrebs fordern jährlich die meisten Todesopfer. Bei steigenden Erkrankungsraten angesichts einer wachsenden und zunehmend älter werdenden Weltbevölkerung ist davon auszugehen, dass auch immer mehr Frauen aufgrund einer Krebserkrankung sterben werden, vor allem in Ländern niedrigen bis mittleren Einkommens. 2012 lag die krebsbedingte Sterberate von Frauen bei 3,5 Millionen. Diese Zahl könnte sich bis 2030 auf 5,5 Millionen und damit um mehr als 57% in weniger als zwei Jahrzehnten erhöhen. Verstärkte Aufklärung und Präventionsmaßnahmen sind nötig, um dieser zunehmenden weltweiten Gesundheitskrise entgegenzuwirken. "Sowohl der öffentliche als auch der private Sektor als Beteiligte des globalen Gesundheitswesens müssen zwingend Wege finden, um die Auswirkungen von Krebserkrankungen auf Frauen durch stärkere Prävention und Behandlung zu reduzieren. Nur so kann weltweit das Leben von vielen Frauen gerettet werden", sagte die US-Botschafterin Sally Cowal, Senior Vice President des Bereichs Global Health der American Cancer Society. Krebserkrankungen wirken sich aber nicht nur physisch auf die erkrankten Frauen und ihre Familien aus, sondern haben auch wirtschaftliche Konsequenzen. Die Studie ermittelte für das Jahr 2009 eine weltweite wirtschaftliche Belastung in Höhe von rund 286 Mrd $ durch Krebserkrankungen. Ein Großteil dieser Summe entfiel auf den todesbedingten vorzeitigen Ausfall von Arbeitskräften. Allein in den USA bezifferten sich die infolge einer Krebserkrankung verlorenen Arbeitsjahre bei Frauen auf 82 Mrd $. Gänzlich unberücksichtigt bleiben hierbei die entgangenen fachlichen Errungenschaften, die diese Frauen vielleicht erzielt hätten. Der Bericht wurde auf dem diesjährigen World Cancer Congress in Paris im Rahmen einer Podiumsdiskussion von Merck unter Moderation von Botschafterin Cowal vorgestellt. Weitere Teilnehmer waren Prinzessin Dina Mired, Generaldirektorin der Krebsstiftung von König Hussein aus Jordanien, Dr. Alise Reicin, Leiterin Global Clinical Development im Biopharma-Geschäft von Merck, und Dr. Edward L. Trimble, Leiter des Center for Global Health am National Cancer Institute. Diese Partnerschaft wird die Weiterentwicklung des Bildungsprogramms "All of Me" der American Cancer Society für junge Fachkräfte fördern. Mit dieser Initiative sollen qualifizierte Arbeitnehmer aus dem Gesundheitswesen und der Zivilgesellschaft in Brasilien, Mexiko, Kolumbien und Indien geschult werden, damit sie im Bereich der Prävention und Früherkennung von Krebs bei Frauen in Ländern niedrigen und mittleren Einkommens Entscheidendes bewirken können. Dieser Bericht ist Teil des Engagements von Merck in der Initiative "Gesunde Frauen, gesunde Wirtschaftssysteme" ("Healthy Women, Healthy Economies"), die das Thema Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden von Frauen explizit mit wirtschaftlichem Wachstum in Beziehung setzt. Der vollständige, englischsprachige Bericht "Global Burden of Cancer in Women" ist hier im Internet publiziert. Merck ist Gründungsmitglied der Initiative "Gesunde Frauen, gesunde Wirtschaftssysteme", die Daten zu Gesundheit und Wohlergehen von Frauen und den Auswirkungen auf das Wirtschaftswachstum sowie Best Practices für Regierungen, Arbeitgeber und Nichtregierungsorganisationen bereitstellt. Ziel sind die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung von Richtlinien, die durch Förderung der Gesundheit und des Wohlergehens von Frauen ihre wirtschaftliche Teilhabe in der Gesellschaft steigern können. Die American Cancer Society ist eine globale Basisorganisation von über 3 Millionen Ehrenamtlichen, die in den Gemeinden weltweit Leben retten und für jeden weiteren Geburtstag kämpfen, der durch eine Krebserkrankung gefährdet ist. Als größte Freiwilligenorganisation im Gesundheitsbereich hat die Gesellschaft einen Rückgang der krebsbedingten Sterberate in den USA um 20 Prozent seit 1991 erreicht sowie eine Senkung des Raucheranteils in der Bevölkerung um 50 Prozent. Es ist zum Teil unseren Fortschritten zu verdanken, dass fast 14 Millionen Amerikaner, die an Krebs erkrankt waren, und unzählige weitere Bürger, bei denen eine Krebserkrankung vermieden werden konnte, dieses Jahr einen weiteren Geburtstag feiern können. Wir sind entschlossen, den Kampf gegen Krebs zu Ende zu bringen. Als größter gemeinnütziger Investor in der Krebsforschung in den USA sind wir stets auf der Suche nach Heilbehandlungen, um sicherzustellen, dass an Krebs erkrankte Menschen die benötigte Unterstützung erhalten. Und wir engagieren uns weiter für einen besseren Zugang zu hochwertiger Gesundheitsversorgung, lebensrettenden Vorsorgeuntersuchungen, sauberer Luft und vieles mehr. Besuchen Sie unsere Homepage im Internet unter http://www.cancer.org, um weitere Informationen oder Unterstützung zu erhalten oder sich am Kampf gegen den Krebs zu beteiligen, oder nehmen Sie telefonisch mit uns Kontakt auf. Sie erreichen uns Tag und Nacht unter der Nummer 1-800-227-2345. Das "All of Me" Bildungsprogramm der American Cancer Society zielt auf die Weiterbildung von jungen Fachkräften aus dem Gesundheitswesen oder der Zivilgesellschaft weltweit, damit diese lernen, sich Gehör zu verschaffen und sich mit Tatendrang und neuen Ideen für die immer wichtiger werdende Integration von Maßnahmen zur Prävention und Früherkennung von Krebserkrankungen bei Frauen einzusetzen. Sämtliche Pressemeldungen von Merck werden zeitgleich mit der Publikation im Internet auch per E-Mail versendet: Nutzen Sie die Web-Adresse http://www.merck.de/newsabo, um sich online zu registrieren, die getroffene Auswahl zu ändern oder den Service wieder zu kündigen. Merck ist ein führendes Wissenschafts- und Technologieunternehmen in den Bereichen Healthcare, Life Science und Performance Materials. Rund 50.000 Mitarbeiter arbeiten daran, Technologien weiterzuentwickeln, die das Leben bereichern - von biopharmazeutischen Therapien zur Behandlung von Krebs oder Multipler Sklerose über wegweisende Systeme für die wissenschaftliche Forschung und Produktion bis hin zu Flüssigkristallen für Smartphones oder LCD-Fernseher. 2015 erwirtschaftete Merck in 66 Ländern einen Umsatz von 12,85 Milliarden Euro. Gegründet 1668 ist Merck das älteste pharmazeutisch-chemische Unternehmen der Welt. Die Gründerfamilie ist bis heute Mehrheitseigentümerin des börsennotierten Konzerns. Merck mit Sitz in Darmstadt besitzt die globalen Rechte am Namen und der Marke Merck. Einzige Ausnahmen sind die USA und Kanada, wo das Unternehmen als EMD Serono, MilliporeSigma und EMD Performance Materials auftritt.


DENVER, Dec. 1, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- The Colorado School of Public Health's Center for Global Health announced the opening of its birth center at the Trifinio Center for Human Development in Guatemala. The new center pairs traditional birth attendants with nurses trained as skilled birth...


DENVER, Nov. 14, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- The Colorado School of Public Health's Center for Global Health announced today the rollout of a revised Pediatrics in Disasters (PEDs) training program, which trains healthcare and humanitarian workers to prioritize life-saving care for children in...


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

Merck, a leading science and technology company, and the American Cancer Society (ACS) today released a report that shows all four of the top causes of cancer deaths in women worldwide are mostly preventable or can often be detected early, when treatment is more successful. The report, titled "The Global Burden of Cancer in Women," is the first tangible output from an innovative partnership between Merck and the American Cancer Society focused on raising awareness and strengthening advocacy around women's cancers. "We are proud to partner with the American Cancer Society to address the impact cancer has on women worldwide," said Belén Garijo, member of the Executive Board and CEO Healthcare at Merck. "This collaboration is a first-of-its-kind public-private partnership that recognizes that no one sector can tackle this challenge alone. Improving women's health and well-being has an uplifting ripple effect on our world, and we know when women do better, our communities do better." The research examines the increasing impact of cancer among women in low- and middle-income countries - and outlines potential solutions to minimize the economic and societal impact of the disease for women, their families and healthcare systems. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in women, with breast, colorectal, lung and cervical cancers claiming the most lives each year. With cancer rates on the rise as the global population grows and ages, the number of women who will lose their lives to cancer is expected to increase, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In 2012, there were 3.5 million deaths among women due to cancer; by 2030 that number is expected to increase to 5.5 million deaths - a more than 57% increase in less than two decades. Increased education and prevention efforts will be essential to addressing this growing global health crisis. "It's incumbent upon both the public and private sectors, as members of the global health community, to find ways to reduce the impacts of cancer on women by increasing prevention and treatment, saving the lives of women across the globe," said Ambassador Sally Cowal, senior vice president, global cancer control at the American Cancer Society. In addition to the physical challenges women with cancer and their families experience, the burden of cancer also extends to the economy. The study found that in 2009, the global economic burden of cancer was estimated at about $ 286 billion, and much of that cost was due to premature death of members of the workforce. In the United States alone in 2008, years of productive life lost due to cancer in women corresponded to $ 82 billion, not to mention the many professional achievements that might have been realized. The report was released at the World Cancer Congress during a Merck panel moderated by Ambassador Cowal. Other participants included HRH Princess Dina Mired of Jordan; Dr. Alise Reicin, Head of Global Clinical Development in the biopharma business of Merck; and Dr. Edward L. "Ted" Trimble, director, Center for Global Health at the National Cancer Institute. This partnership will also catalyse the evolution of the American Cancer Society's All of Me Young Scholars program, which aims to educate and cultivate health and civil society professionals in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and India to affect meaningful change in prevention and early detection of cancers among women in low- and middle-income countries. This report is part of Merck's involvement with the Healthy Women, Healthy Economies initiative, which explicitly links the issue of women's health and well-being with economic growth. The full "Global Burden of Cancer in Women" report is available http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/global-burden-cancer-in-women. Merck is a founding partner of the Healthy Women, Healthy Economies initiative, which brings together the evidence about women's health and well-being and its impact on economic growth with the best practices that governments, employers and non-governmental organizations can follow. It aims to identify and implement policies that advance women's health and well-being to increase their economic participation in the societies in which they live. The American Cancer Society is a global grassroots force of more than three million volunteers saving lives and fighting for every birthday threatened by every cancer in every community. As the largest voluntary health organization, the Society's efforts have contributed to a 20 percent decline in cancer death rates in the U.S. since 1991, and a 50 percent drop in smoking rates. Thanks in part to our progress, nearly 14 million Americans who have had cancer and countless more who have avoided it will celebrate more birthdays this year. We're determined to finish the fight against cancer. We're finding cures as the nation's largest private, not-for-profit investor in cancer research, ensuring people facing cancer have the help they need and continuing the fight for access to quality health care, lifesaving screenings, clean air and more. For more information, to get help, or to join the fight, call us anytime, day or night, at 1-800-227-2345 or visit cancer.org. About the American Cancer Society's All of Me Young Scholars Program The American Cancer Society's All of Me Young Scholars program aims to educate and cultivate young health and civil society professionals around the world to bring their energy, voice and new ideas to the new and growing field of integration of women's cancer prevention and early detection. All Merck press releases are distributed by email at the same time they become available on the Merck website. Please go to http://www.merckgroup.com/subscribe to register online, change your selection or discontinue this service. Merck is a leading science and technology company in healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 50,000 employees work to further develop technologies that improve and enhance life - from biopharmaceutical therapies to treat cancer or multiple sclerosis, cutting-edge systems for scientific research and production, to liquid crystals for smartphones and LCD televisions. In 2015, Merck generated sales of €12.85 billion in 66 countries. Founded in 1668, Merck is the world's oldest pharmaceutical and chemical company. The founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed corporate group. The company holds the global rights to the Merck name and brand. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the company operates as EMD Serono, MilliporeSigma and EMD Performance Materials.


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Darmstadt, Germany, November 1, 2016 - Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, and the American Cancer Society (ACS) today released a report that shows all four of the top causes of cancer deaths in women worldwide are mostly preventable or can often be detected early, when treatment is more successful. The report, titled "The Global Burden of Cancer in Women," is the first tangible output from an innovative partnership between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and the American Cancer Society focused on raising awareness and strengthening advocacy around women's cancers. "We are proud to partner with the American Cancer Society to address the impact cancer has on women worldwide," said Belén Garijo, member of the Executive Board and CEO Healthcare at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. "This collaboration is a first-of-its-kind public-private partnership that recognizes that no one sector can tackle this challenge alone. Improving women's health and well-being has an uplifting ripple effect on our world, and we know when women do better, our communities do better." The research examines the increasing impact of cancer among women in low- and middle-income countries - and outlines potential solutions to minimize the economic and societal impact of the disease for women, their families and healthcare systems. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in women, with breast, colorectal, lung and cervical cancers claiming the most lives each year. With cancer rates on the rise as the global population grows and ages, the number of women who will lose their lives to cancer is expected to increase, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In 2012, there were 3.5 million deaths among women due to cancer; by 2030, that number is expected to increase to 5.5 million deaths - a more than 57 percent increase in less than two decades. Increased education and prevention efforts will be essential to addressing this growing global health crisis. "It's incumbent upon both the public and private sectors, as members of the global health community, to find ways to reduce the impacts of cancer on women by increasing prevention and treatment, saving the lives of women across the globe," said Ambassador Sally Cowal, senior vice president, global cancer control at the American Cancer Society. In addition to the physical challenges women with cancer and their families experience, the burden of cancer also extends to the economy. The study found that in 2009, the global economic burden of cancer was estimated at about $286 billion, and much of that cost was due to premature death of members of the workforce. In the United States alone in 2008, years of productive life lost due to cancer in women corresponded to $82 billion, not to mention the many professional achievements that might have been realized. The report was released at the World Cancer Congress during a panel moderated by Ambassador Cowal. Other participants included HRH Princess Dina Mired of Jordan; Dr. Alise Reicin, Head of Global Clinical Development in the biopharma business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; and Dr. Edward L. "Ted" Trimble, director, Center for Global Health at the National Cancer Institute. This partnership will also catalyse the evolution of the American Cancer Society's' All of Me Young Scholars program, which aims to educate and cultivate health and civil society professionals in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and India to affect meaningful change in prevention and early detection of cancers among women in low- and middle-income countries. This report is part of the involvement of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, with the Healthy Women, Healthy Economies initiative, which explicitly links the issue of women's health and well-being with economic growth. The full "Global Burden of Cancer in Women" report is available http://www. . Merck KGaA, Darrmstadt, Germany, is a founding partner of the Healthy Women, Healthy Economies initiative, which brings together the evidence about women's health and well-being and its impact on economic growth with the best practices that governments, employers and non-governmental organizations can follow. It aims to identify and implement policies that advance women's health and well-being to increase their economic participation in the societies in which they live. The American Cancer Society is a global grassroots force of more than three million volunteers saving lives and fighting for every birthday threatened by every cancer in every community. As the largest voluntary health organization, the Society's efforts have contributed to a 20 percent decline in cancer death rates in the U.S. since 1991, and a 50 percent drop in smoking rates. Thanks in part to our progress, nearly 14 million Americans who have had cancer and countless more who have avoided it will celebrate more birthdays this year. We're determined to finish the fight against cancer. We're finding cures as the nation's largest private, not-for-profit investor in cancer research, ensuring people facing cancer have the help they need and continuing the fight for access to quality health care, lifesaving screenings, clean air and more. For more information, to get help, or to join the fight, call us anytime, day or night, at 1-800-227-2345 or visit cancer.org About the American Cancer Society's All of Me Young Scholars Program The American Cancer Society's All of Me Young Scholars program aims to educate and cultivate young health and civil society professionals around the world to bring their energy, voice and new ideas to the new and growing field of integration of women's cancer prevention and early detection. All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www. to register again for your online subscription of this service as our newly introduced geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, is a leading science and technology company in healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 50,000 employees work to further develop technologies that improve and enhance life - from biopharmaceutical therapies to treat cancer or multiple sclerosis, cutting-edge systems for scientific research and production, to liquid crystals for smartphones and LCD televisions. In 2015, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, generated sales of € 12.85 billion in 66 countries. Founded in 1668, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, is the world's oldest pharmaceutical and chemical company. The founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed corporate group. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, holds the global rights to the Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, name and brand. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the company operates as EMD Serono, MilliporeSigma and EMD Performance Materials. For further details and press materials about Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, in oncology products please visit http://www.


News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Five-year study in Tanzania, Africa seeks to determine whether combining diabetes and hypertension screening with HIV screening will increase uptake of HIV testing and care The success of HIV treatment programs depends upon the identification, enrollment, and retention of HIV-infected individuals, but public health officials have learned that there are numerous barriers to such success at every point in this care continuum. HIV-centric programs carry a stigma, patients' transportation to the HIV clinics can be a problem, and patients tire of repeat visits to learn whether they have become eligible for HIV treatment. Chronic noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and hyptertension are another growing global epidemic, accounting for 38 million deaths annually, with three quarters of those deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Michael D. Sweat, Ph.D., professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina and director of the Center for Global Health, has worked with American and Tanzanian scientists and other colleagues since 1994 to study ways to increase HIV screening and care in Tanzania. Sweat is the principal investigator for the $3.1M NIH grant received in October by the Center for Global Health to study the integration of diabetes and hypertension screening into HIV screening. This study will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the novel integration of diabetes and hypertension screening and care with HIV screening and care. An earlier pilot study led by Sweat indicated that this approach is likely to increase HIV testing, a finding that is relevant throughout the world, including rural, impoverished areas of the U.S. "Global health is everyone's health," said Sweat. "The greatest burdens of disease in the world--HIV, diabetes, and hypertension, among others--know no borders. This grant will enable us to discover better and more efficient ways to address these threats to health, no matter where they arise." Sweat's institutional collaborators will be Clemson University's Department of Bioengineering, which has worked with Arusha Technical College in Tanzania in the past to develop low-cost health technology solutions for resource-poor settings, and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, which will provide clinical services and collaborate on data collection and analysis. "HIV and AIDS continue to be a huge problem in Tanzania," said Jessie Mbwambo, M.D., professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. "However, we cannot neglect other growing health needs such as diabetes and hypertension. We believe that by integrating diabetes and hypertension care with HIV care we can likely improve health in all these domains much more effectively and at a lower cost." Delphine Dean, Ph.D., Gregg-Graniteville Associate Professor of Bioengineering at Clemson University, will direct the development of low-cost, diagnostic devices in her laboratory and provide technical support to the health clinics in Tanzania. Dean's laboratory recently developed a low-cost glucometer designed to print (on an inkjet printer) test strips on filter paper loaded with reagents to which a drop of blood is applied to determine the patient's blood sugar level. A patent on the glucometer was filed through the Clemson University Research Foundation. "The lack of medical equipment, devices, and tests in resource-poor areas such as rural Tanzania limits clinicians' ability to diagnose and treat," said Dean. "By working together, we can improve accessibility to technology and improve global health." Patient enrollment is projected to begin in the fall of 2017. Founded in 1824 in Charleston, The Medical University of South Carolina is the oldest medical school in the South. Today, MUSC continues the tradition of excellence in education, research, and patient care. MUSC educates and trains more than 3,000 students and residents, and has nearly 13,000 employees, including approximately 1,500 faculty members. As the largest non-federal employer in Charleston, the university and its affiliates have collective annual budgets in excess of $2.2 billion. MUSC operates a 750-bed medical center, which includes a nationally recognized Children's Hospital, the Ashley River Tower (cardiovascular, digestive disease, and surgical oncology), Hollings Cancer Center (a National Cancer Institute-designated center), a Level 1 Trauma Center, and Institute of Psychiatry. For more information on academic or clinical services, visit musc.edu. For more information on hospital patient services, visit muschealth.org.


St Louis M.,Center for Global Health
Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) | Year: 2012

Awareness of the importance of global health surveillance increased in the latter part of the 20th century with the global emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and novel strains of influenza. In the first decade of the 21st century, several events further highlighted global shared interests in and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Bioterrorist use of anthrax spores in 2001 raised awareness of the value of public health surveillance for national security. The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, re-emergence of a panzootic of avian influenza A H5N1 in 2005, and the sudden emergence of pandemic H1N1 in North America in 2009 all highlighted the importance of shared global responsibility for surveillance and disease control. In particular, in 2003, SARS precipitated changes in awareness of the world's collective economic vulnerability to epidemic shocks.


Cullen K.A.,Center for Global Health | Arguin P.M.,Center for Global Health
MMWR Surveillance Summaries | Year: 2014

Problem/Condition: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites aretransmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occuramong persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is also occasionally acquired bypersons who have not traveled out of the country, through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratoryexposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of localtransmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. Period Covered: This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of symptoms in 2012 and summarizes trends during previous years. Description of System: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are mandatedto be reported to local and state health departments by health-care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conductedby local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System(NMSS), National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consults. For the first time, CDC conductedantimalarial drug resistance testing on blood samples submitted to CDC by health-care providers or local/state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. Results: CDC received 1,687 reported cases of malaria with an onset of symptoms in 2012 among persons in the United States, including 1,683 cases classified as imported, one laboratory-acquired case, one nosocomial case, and two cryptic cases. The totalnumber of cases represents a 12% decrease from the 1,925 cases reported for 2011. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 58%, 17%, 3%, and 3% of cases, respectively. Twenty (1%) patients were infected by two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 17% of cases, a decrease of 6 percentage points from 2011. Polymerasechain reaction testing determined or corrected the species for 45 (43%) of the 104 samples submitted for drug resistance testing. Of the 909 patients who reported purpose of travel, 604 (66%) were visiting friends or relatives (VFR). Among the 983 casesin U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 63 (6%) patients reported thatthey had followed and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they hadtraveled. Thirty-two cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only one adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among allreported cases, 231 (14%) were classified as severe infections in 2012. Of these, six persons with malaria died in 2012. Beginningin 2012, there were 104 blood samples submitted to CDC that were tested for molecular markers associated with antimalarial drugresistance. Of the 65 P. falciparum-positive samples, 53 (82%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drugresistance, 61 (94%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 29 (45%) with chloroquine resistance, 1 (2%) with mefloquine drug resistance,2 (3%) with atovaquone resistance, and none with artemisinin resistance. Interpretation: Despite the 12% decline in the number of cases reported in 2012 compared with 2011, the overall trend inmalaria cases has been increasing since 1973. Although progress has been made in reducing the global burden of malaria, thedisease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Public Health Actions: Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form increased slightly in 2012 compared with2011, but still remains unacceptably low. This incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases andprevent infections. VFRs continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence basedprevention strategies that effectively target VFRs need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact onthe numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. Although more patients reported taking chemoprophylaxis to preventmalaria, the majority reported not taking it, and adherence was poor among those who did take chemoprophylaxis. Proper use ofmalaria chemoprophylaxis will prevent the majority of malaria illness and reduce the risk for severe disease (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medicationsappropriate for the patient's age and medical history, the likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarialchemoprophylaxis. Recent molecular laboratory advances have enabled CDC to identify and conduct molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/features/ars.html). These advances will allow CDC to track, guidetreatment, and manage drug resistant malaria parasites both domestically and globally. For this to be successful, specimens shouldbe submitted for cases diagnosed in the United States and for ongoing specimen collection and testing globally. Clinicians shouldconsult the CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria and contact the CDC's Malaria Hotline for case management advice whenneeded. Malaria treatment recommendations can be obtained online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment) or by callingthe Malaria Hotline (770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713).


Mali S.,Center for Global Health | Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria,Center for Global Health
Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) | Year: 2012

Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to areas with ongoing malaria transmission. In the United States, cases can occur through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, or local mosquito-borne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2010 and summarizes trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are mandated to be reported to local and state health departments by health-care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consults. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received 1,691 reported cases of malaria, including 1,688 cases classified as imported, one transfusion-related case, and two cryptic cases, with an onset of symptoms in 2010 among persons in the United States. The total number of cases represents an increase of 14% from the 1,484 cases reported for 2009. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 58%, 19%, 2%, and 2% of cases, respectively. Thirteen patients were infected by two or more species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 18% of cases. Among the 898 cases in U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel area was known, 45 (5%) reported that they had followed and adhered to a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the areas to which they had traveled. Forty-one cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only two (5%) adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 176 (10%) were classified as severe infections, of which nine were fatal. The number of cases reported in 2010 marked the largest number of cases reported since 1980. Despite the apparent progress in reducing the global burden of malaria, many areas remain malaria endemic and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFR travelers need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact on the numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. A large number of pregnant travelers diagnosed with malaria did not take any chemoprophylaxis. Pregnant women traveling to areas in which malaria is endemic are at higher risk for severe malaria and must use appropriate malaria prevention strategies including chemoprophylaxis. Malaria prevention recommendations are available online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, the likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Clinicians should consult the CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria and contact the CDC's Malaria Hotline for case management advice, when needed. Malaria treatment recommendations can be obtained online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment) or by calling the Malaria Hotline (770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713).


Cullen K.A.,Center for Global Health | Arguin P.M.,Center for Global Health
MMWR Surveillance Summaries | Year: 2013

Problem/Condition: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is also occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country, through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. Period Covered: This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2011 and summarizes trends during previous years. Description of System: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are mandated to be reported to local and state health departments by health-care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consults. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. Results: CDC received 1,925 reported cases of malaria with an onset of symptoms in 2011 among persons in the United States, including 1,920 cases classified as imported, one laboratory-acquired case, one transfusion-related case, two congenital cases, and one cryptic case. The total number of cases represents an increase of 14% from the 1,691 cases reported for 2010 and the largest number of reported cases since 1971. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 49%, 22%, 3%, and 3% of cases, respectively. Twenty-one (1%) patients were infected by two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 23% of cases, an increase of 5 percentage points from 2010. Of the 871 patients who reported purpose of travel, 607 (70%) were visiting friends or relatives (VFR). Among the 929 cases in U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 57 (6%) patients reported that they had followed and adhered to a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-seven cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only one adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, significantly more cases (n = 275 [14%]) were classified as severe infections in 2011 compared with 2010 (n = 183 [11%]; p = 0.0018; chi square). Five persons with malaria died in 2011. After 2 years of improvement in completion of data elements on the malaria case form, higher percentages of incomplete data in 2011 for residential status (from 11% in 2010 to 19% in 2011) and species (from 18% in 2010 to 22% in 2011) were noted. Interpretation: The number of cases reported in 2011 marked the largest number of cases since 1971 (N = 3,180). Despite progress in reducing the global burden of malaria, the disease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Public Health Actions: Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form decreased in 2011 compared with 2010. This incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases and prevent infections. VFR travelers continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFR travelers need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact on the numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. Although more persons with cases reported taking chemoprophylaxis to prevent malaria, the majority reported not taking it, and adherence was poor among those who did take chemoprophylaxis. Proper use of malaria chemoprophylaxis will prevent the majority of malaria illness and reduce the risk for severe disease (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, the likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Clinicians should consult the CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria and contact the CDC's Malaria Hotline for case management advice, when needed. Malaria treatment recommendations can be obtained online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment) or by calling the Malaria Hotline (770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713).

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