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Dasgupta S.,The World Bank | Murray S.,The World Bank | Wheeler D.,Center for Global Development
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

An increase in sea surface temperature is strongly evident at all latitudes and in all oceans. The scientific evidence to date suggests that increased sea surface temperature will intensify cyclone activity and heighten storm surges. The paper assesses the exposure of (coastal) developing countries to sea-level rise and the intensification of storm surges. Geographic Information System (GIS) software is used to overlay the best available, spatially-disaggregated global data on critical exposed elements (land, population, GDP, agricultural extent and wetlands) with the inundation zones projected with heightened storm surges and a 1 m sea-level rise. Country-level results indicate a significant increase in exposure of developing countries to these climate-induced changes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Bbaale E.,Center for Global Development
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background Uganda records an inadequate utilisation of antenatal care programmes. The study set out to investigate the factors associated with the use of antenatal care content to inform policy makers of the pertinent factors that need to be influenced by policy. Method Data for the study was taken from a nationally representative Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2006. The study employed both descriptive and community fixed effects approaches to examine the factors associated with the use of antenatal care content in Uganda. Results On average, only 16% of women used the full content of antenatal care. Only 12% of women had a urine sample taken, 28% a blood sample taken, and 53% their blood pressure measured. Almost two-thirds of women (63%) took iron supplements, 77% had their weight measured, and 27% were given drugs for intestinal parasites. The utilisation of the content of care was significantly associated with education of the mother and her partner, wealth status, location disparities, timing and frequency of antenatal visits, nature of facility visited, access to media, family planning, and utilisation of professional care. Conclusion Efforts are needed to educate girls beyond secondary level, establish village outreach clinics with qualified staff to attract the hard to reach women in the rural areas, and facilitate antenatal care utilisation irrespective of the ability to pay. Source


Kenny C.,Center for Global Development
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2012

Construction is a £1100 billion industry worldwide, much of which is linked to publicly financed projects. However, cost and time escalation and poor quality are commonplace due to weak governance and endemic corruption. There is considerable evidence that transparency and oversight are potentially powerful tools to reduce the impact of corruption. This paper argues that a comparatively cheap and potentially powerful tool to improve outcomes in public procurement is regular publication of contract and implementation details. In particular, the publication of government contracts would considerably improve transparency, helping to improve efficiency and reduce costs. Source


Bbaale E.,Center for Global Development
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background Over 99% of mothers who die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year are found in developing countries.3 In Uganda, maternal mortality is estimated at 435 deaths per 100,000 live births. We sought to understand the factors influencing frequency and timing of antenatal care in Uganda in order to inform policy on the key aspects that need to be influenced. Method We used data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2006 and employed both descriptive and quantitative approaches (probit estimation). After a probitestimation, we generated marginal effects to interpret the results as probabilities of utilisation of antenatal care given particular background characteristics. Results On average, only 17% and 47% of mothers initiate the first antenatal visit in the first trimester and attain at least four antenatal visits, respectively. The timing and frequency of antenatal visits were significantly associated with education of the mother and her partner, wealth status, regional disparities, religious differences, access to media, maternal autonomy in taking a health decision, occupations of themother and her partner, timing of pregnancy, birth histories, and birth order. Conclusion Efforts are needed to educate girls beyond secondary level, establishment village outreach clinics with qualified staff to attract the hard-to-reach women, and to ensure universal access to prenatal care services irrespective of the ability to pay. Media penetration should also be increased amongst the population and this channel can be used to disseminate a standard piece of information concerning what pregnant women should expect and do during the prenatal period. Source


Meyer-Rath G.,Boston University | Meyer-Rath G.,University of Witwatersrand | Over M.,Center for Global Development
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2012

Policy discussions about the feasibility of massively scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce HIV transmission and incidence hinge on accurately projecting the cost of such scale-up in comparison to the benefits from reduced HIV incidence and mortality. We review the available literature on modelled estimates of the cost of providing ART to different populations around the world, and suggest alternative methods of characterising cost when modelling several decades into the future. In past economic analyses of ART provision, costs were often assumed to vary by disease stage and treatment regimen, but for treatment as prevention, in particular, most analyses assume a uniform cost per patient. This approach disregards variables that can affect unit cost, such as differences in factor prices (i.e., the prices of supplies and services) and the scale and scope of operations (i.e., the sizes and types of facilities providing ART). We discuss several of these variables, and then present a worked example of a flexible cost function used to determine the effect of scale on the cost of a proposed scale-up of treatment as prevention in South Africa. Adjusting previously estimated costs of universal testing and treatment in South Africa for diseconomies of small scale, i.e., more patients being treated in smaller facilities, adds 42% to the expected future cost of the intervention. © 2012 Meyer-Rath and Over. Source

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