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Heuze Y.,Pennsylvania State University | Martinez-Abadias N.,Pennsylvania State University | Martinez-Abadias N.,Center for Genomic Regulation Systems Biology Research Unit | Stella J.M.,Pennsylvania State University | And 8 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology

Background: fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) -related craniosynostosis syndromes are caused by many different mutations within FGFR-1, 2, 3, and certain FGFR mutations are associated with more than one clinical syndrome. These syndromes share coronal craniosynostosis and characteristic facial skeletal features, although Apert syndrome (AS) is characterized by a more dysmorphic facial skeleton relative to Crouzon (CS), Muenke (MS), or Pfeiffer syndromes. Methods: Here we perform a detailed three-dimensional evaluation of facial skeletal shape in a retrospective sample of cases clinically and/or genetically diagnosed as AS, CS, MS, and Pfeiffer syndrome to quantify variation in facial dysmorphology, precisely identify specific facial features pertaining to these four syndromes, and further elucidate what knowledge of the causative FGFR mutation brings to our understanding of these syndromes. Results: Our results confirm a strong correspondence between genotype and facial phenotype for AS and MS with severity of facial dysmorphology diminishing from Apert FGFR2S252W to Apert FGFR2P253R to MS. We show that AS facial shape variation is increased relative to CS, although CS has been shown to be caused by numerous distinct mutations within FGFRs and reduced dosage in ERF. Conclusion: Our quantitative analysis of facial phenotypes demonstrate subtle variation within and among craniosynostosis syndromes that might, with further research, provide information about the impact of the mutation on facial skeletal and nonskeletal development. We suggest that precise studies of the phenotypic consequences of genetic mutations at many levels of analysis should accompany next-generation genetic research and that these approaches should proceed cooperatively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Seo M.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Seo M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Seo K.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Hwang W.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | And 14 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans. Source

Jelier R.,Center for Genomic Regulation Systems Biology Research Unit | Semple J.I.,Center for Genomic Regulation Systems Biology Research Unit | Garcia-Verdugo R.,Center for Genomic Regulation Systems Biology Research Unit | Lehner B.,Center for Genomic Regulation Systems Biology Research Unit | Lehner B.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Nature Genetics

A central challenge in genetics is to predict phenotypic variation from individual genome sequences. Here we construct and evaluate phenotypic predictions for 19 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We use conservation-based methods to predict the impact of protein-coding variation within genes on protein function. We then rank strains using a prediction score that measures the total sum of function-altering changes in different sets of genes reported to influence over 100 phenotypes in genome-wide loss-of-function screens. We evaluate our predictions by comparing them with the observed growth rate and efficiency of 15 strains tested across 20 conditions in quantitative experiments. The median predictive performance, as measured by ROC AUC, was 0.76, and predictions were more accurate when the genes reported to influence a trait were highly connected in a functional gene network. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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