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Li X.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Maretzky T.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Perez-Aguilar J.M.,Biophysics and Systems Biology | Perez-Aguilar J.M.,IBM | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2017

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) controls the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, also known as TNF) and is crucial for protecting the skin and intestinal barrier by proteolytic activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. The seven-membrane-spanning protein called inactive rhomboid 2 (Rhbdf2; also known as iRhom2) is required for ADAM17-dependent TNFα shedding and crosstalk with the EGFR, and a point mutation (known as sinecure, sin) in the first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Rhbdf2 (Rhbdf2sin) blocks TNFα shedding, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we used a structure-function analysis informed by structural modeling to evaluate the interaction between the TMD of ADAM17 and the first TMD of Rhbdf2, and the role of this interaction in Rhbdf2- ADAM17-dependent shedding. Moreover, we show that double mutant mice that are homozygous for Rhbdf2sin/sin and lack Rhbdf1 closely resemble Rhbdf1/2-/- double knockout mice, highlighting the severe functional impact of the Rhbdf2sin/sin mutation on ADAM17 during mouse development. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic and conceptual insights into the critical role of the TMDs of ADAM17 and Rhbdf2 in the regulation of the ADAM17 and EGFR, and ADAM17 and TNFα signaling pathways. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

PubMed | Center for the Genetics of Host Defense
Type: Review | Journal: Best practice & research. Clinical haematology | Year: 2016

As it is a hard-wired system for responses to microbes, innate immunity is particularly susceptible to classical genetic analysis. Mutations led the way to the discovery of many of the molecular elements of innate immune sensing and signaling pathways. In turn, the need for a faster way to find the molecular causes of mutation-induced phenotypes triggered a huge transformation in forward genetics. During the 1980s and 1990s, many heritable phenotypes were ascribed to mutations through positional cloning. In mice, this required three steps. First, a genetic mapping step was used to show that a given phenotype emanated from a circumscribed region of the genome. Second, a physical mapping step was undertaken, in which all of the region was cloned and its gene content determined. Finally, a concerted search for the mutation was performed. Such projects usually lasted for several years, but could produce breakthroughs in our understanding of biological processes. Publication of the annotated mouse genome sequence in 2002 made physical mapping unnecessary. More recently we devised a new technology for automated genetic mapping, which eliminated both genetic mapping and the search for mutations among candidate genes. The cause of phenotype can now be determined instantaneously. We have created more than 100,000 coding/splicing mutations. And by screening for defects of innate and adaptive immunity we have discovered many new proteins needed for innate immune function.

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