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Hill A.-M.,The University of Notre Dame Australia | McPhail S.M.,Queensland University of Technology | McPhail S.M.,Center for Functioning and Health Research | Waldron N.,Armadale Kelmscott Memorial Hospital | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Falls are the most frequent adverse events that are reported in hospitals. We examined the effectiveness of individualised falls-prevention education for patients, supported by training and feedback for staff, delivered as a ward-level programme. Methods Eight rehabilitation units in general hospitals in Australia participated in this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised study, undertaken during a 50 week period. Units were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups by use of computer-generated, random allocation sequences. We included patients admitted to the unit during the study with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of more than 23/30 to receive individualised education that was based on principles of changes in health behaviour from a trained health professional, in addition to usual care. We provided information about patients' goals, feedback about the ward environment, and perceived barriers to engagement in falls-prevention strategies to staff who were trained to support the uptake of strategies by patients. The coprimary outcome measures were patient rate of falls per 1000 patient-days and the proportion of patients who were fallers. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, number ACTRN12612000877886). Findings Between Jan 13, and Dec 27, 2013, 3606 patients were admitted to the eight units (n=1983 control period; n=1623 intervention period). There were fewer falls (n=196, 7·80/1000 patient-days vs n=380, 13·78/1000 patient-days, adjusted rate ratio 0·60 [robust 95% CI 0·42-0·94], p=0·003), injurious falls (n=66, 2·63/1000 patient-days vs 131, 4·75/1000 patient-days, 0·65 [robust 95% CI 0·42-0·88], p=0·006), and fallers (n=136 [8·38%] vs n=248 [12·51%] adjusted odds ratio 0·55 [robust 95% CI 0·38 to 0·81], p=0·003) in the intervention compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in length of stay (intervention median 11 days [IQR 7-19], control 10 days [6-18]). Interpretation Individualised patient education programmes combined with training and feedback to staff added to usual care reduces the rates of falls and injurious falls in older patients in rehabilitation hospital-units. Funding State Health Research Advisory Council, Department of Health, Government of Western Australia. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Passier L.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | McPhail S.,Center for Functioning and Health Research | McPhail S.,Queensland University of Technology
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2011

Background. Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). Methods. A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Results. Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Conclusions. Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted. © 2011 Passier and McPhail; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yeung W.M.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | McPhail S.M.,Queensland University of Technology | McPhail S.M.,Center for Functioning and Health Research | Kuys S.S.,Allied Health Research Collaborative | Kuys S.S.,Griffith University
Journal of Cancer Survivorship | Year: 2015

Introduction: Axillary web syndrome (AWS) can result in early post-operative and long-term difficulties following lymphadenectomy for cancer and should be recognised by clinicians. This systematic review was conducted to synthesise information on AWS clinical presentation and diagnosis, frequency, natural progression, grading, pathoaetiology, risk factors, symptoms, interventions and outcomes. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted using Cochrane, Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, PEDro and Google Scholar until June 2013. The methodological quality of included studies was determined using the Downs and Black checklist. Narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. Results: Thirty-seven studies with methodological quality scores ranging from 11 to 26 on a 28-point scale were included. AWS diagnosis relies on inspection and palpation; grading has not been validated. AWS frequency was reported in up to 85.4 % of patients. Biopsies identified venous and lymphatic pathoaetiology with five studies suggesting lymphatic involvement. Twenty-one studies reported AWS occurrence within eight post-operative weeks, but late occurrence of greater than 3 months is possible. Pain was commonly reported with shoulder abduction more restricted than flexion. AWS symptoms usually resolve within 3 months but may persist. Risk factors may include extensiveness of surgery, younger age, lower body mass index, ethnicity and healing complications. Low-quality studies suggest that conservative approaches including analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or physiotherapy may be safe and effective for early symptom reduction. Conclusions: AWS appears common. Current evidence for the treatment of AWS is insufficient to provide clear guidance for clinical practice. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Cancer survivors should be informed about AWS. Further investigation is needed into pathoaetiology, long-term outcomes and to determine effective treatment using standardised outcomes. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

McPhail S.,Center for Functioning and Health Research | McPhail S.,Queensland University of Technology | Haines T.,Allied Health Research Unit | Haines T.,Monash University
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2012

Background: Expectations held by patients and health professionals may affect treatment choices and participation (by both patients and health professionals) in therapeutic interventions in contemporary patient-centered healthcare environments. If patients in rehabilitation settings overestimate their discharge health-related quality of life, they may become despondent as their progress falls short of their expectations. On the other hand, underestimating their discharge health-related quality of life may lead to a lack of motivation to participate in therapies if they do not perceive likely benefit. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence evaluating whether patients' expectations of future health states are accurate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy with which older patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation can anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life.Methods: A prospective longitudinal cohort investigation of agreement between patients' anticipated discharge health-related quality of life (as reported on the EQ-5D instrument at admission to a rehabilitation unit) and their actual self-reported health-related quality of life at the time of discharge from this unit was undertaken. The mini-mental state examination was used as an indicator of patients' cognitive ability.Results: Overall, 232(85%) patients had all assessment data completed and were included in analysis. Kappa scores ranged from 0.42-0.68 across the five EQ-5D domains and two patient cognition groups. The percentage of exact correct matches within each domain ranged from 69% to 85% across domains and cognition groups. Overall 40% of participants in each cognition group correctly anticipated all of their self-reported discharge EQ-5D domain responses.Conclusions: Patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation were able to anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life on the EQ-5D instrument with a moderate level of accuracy. This finding adds to the foundational empirical work supporting joint treatment decision making and patient-centered models of care during rehabilitation following acute illness or injury. Accurate patient expectations of the impact of treatment (or disease progression) on future health-related related quality of life is likely to allow patients and health professionals to successfully target interventions to priority areas where meaningful gains can be achieved. © 2012 McPhail and Haines; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Rachele J.N.,Queensland University of Technology | Cuddihy T.F.,Queensland University of Technology | Washington T.L.,Queensland University of Technology | McPhail S.M.,Queensland University of Technology | McPhail S.M.,Center for Functioning and Health Research
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2014

Purpose Potential positive associations between youth physical activity and wellness scores could emphasize the value of youth physical activity engagement and promotion interventions, beyond the many established physiological and psychological benefits of increased physical activity. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between adolescents' self-reported physical activity and wellness. Methods This investigation included 493 adolescents (165 males and 328 females) aged between 12 and 15 years. The participants were recruited from six secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status within a metropolitan area. Students were administered the Five-Factor Wellness Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents to assess both wellness and physical activity, respectively. Results Data indicated that significant associations between physical activity and wellness existed. Self-reported physical activity was shown to be positively associated with four dimensions including friendship, gender identity, spirituality, and exercise - the higher order factor physical self and total wellness, and negatively associated with self-care, self-worth, love, and cultural identity. Conclusion This study suggests that relationships exist between self-reported physical activity and various elements of wellness. Future research should use controlled trials of physical activity and wellness to establish causal links among youth populations. Understanding the nature of these relationships, including causality, has implications for the justification of youth physical activity promotion interventions and the development of youth physical activity engagement programs. © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

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