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Chatham J.C.,Center for Free Radical Biology | Chatham J.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Marchase R.B.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2010

The modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) has emerged as a highly dynamic post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating numerous biological processes. Much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of O-GlcNAc on cellular function has been in the context of its adverse effects in mediating a range of chronic disease processes, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, at the cellular level it has been shown that O-GlcNAc levels are increased in response to stress; augmentation of this response improved cell survival while attenuation decreased cell viability. Thus, it has become apparent that strategies that augment O-GlcNAc levels are pro-survival, whereas those that reduce O-GlcNAc levels decrease cell survival. There is a long history demonstrating the effectiveness of acute glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) treatment and to a lesser extent glutamine in protecting against a range of stresses, including myocardial ischemia. A common feature of these approaches for metabolic cardioprotection is that they both have the potential to stimulate O-GlcNAc synthesis. Consequently, here we examine the links between metabolic cardioprotection with the ischemic cardioprotection associated with acute increases in O-GlcNAc levels. Some of the protective mechanisms associated with activation of O-GlcNAcylation appear to be transcriptionally mediated; however, there is also strong evidence to suggest that transcriptionally independent mechanisms also play a critical role. In this context we discuss the potential link between O-GlcNAcylation and cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis including the role of non-voltage gated, capacitative calcium entry as a potential mechanism contributing to this protection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Chatham J.C.,Center for Free Radical Biology | Chatham J.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Marchase R.B.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Current Signal Transduction Therapy | Year: 2010

The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic and ubiquitous protein modification that plays a critical role in regulating numerous biological processes. Much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of O-GlcNAc on cellular function has been in the context of chronic disease processes. However, there is increasing evidence that O-GlcNAc levels are increased in response to stress and that acute augmentation of this response is cytoprotective, at least in the short term. Conversely, a reduction in O-GlcNAc levels appears to be associated with decreased cell survival in response to an acute stress. Here we summarize our current understanding of protein O-GlcNAcylation on the cellular response to stress and in mediating cellular protective mechanisms focusing primarily on the cardiovascular system as an example. We consider the potential link between O-GlcNAcylation and cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and explore the parallels between O-GlcNAc signaling and redox signaling. We also discuss the apparent paradox between the reported adverse effects of increased O-GlcNAcylation with its recently reported role in mediating cell survival mechanisms. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Liu R.-M.,Center for Free Radical Biology | Gaston Pravia K.A.,Center for Free Radical Biology
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is the most potent and ubiquitous profibrogenic cytokine, and its expression is increased in almost all the fibrotic diseases and in experimental fibrosis models. TGF-β increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases the concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, which mediates many of the fibrogenic effects of TGF-β in various types of cells. A decreased GSH concentration is also observed in human fibrotic diseases and in experimental fibrosis models. Although the biological significance of GSH depletion in the development of fibrosis remains obscure, GSH and N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of GSH, have been used in clinics for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes recent findings in the field to address the potential mechanism whereby oxidative stress mediates fibrogenesis induced by TGF-β and the potential therapeutic value of antioxidant treatment in fibrotic diseases. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Gladden J.D.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Zelickson B.R.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Guichard J.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Ahmed M.I.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2013

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is increased in human and rat left ventricular (LV) myocytes with volume overload (VO) of mitral regurgitation and aortocaval fistula (ACF). In the setting of increased ATP demand, XO-mediated ROS can decrease mitochondrial respiration and contractile function. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that XO inhibition improves cardiomyocyte bioenergetics and LV function in chronic ACF in the rat. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to either sham or ACF ± allopurinol (100 mg·kg-1·day-1, n ≥7 rats/group). Echocardiography at 8 wk demonstrated a similar 37% increase in LV end-diastolic dimension (P < 0.001), a twofold increase in LV end-diastolic pressure/wall stress (P < 0.05), and a twofold increase in lung weight (P < 0.05) in treated and untreated ACF groups versus the sham group. LV ejection fraction, velocity of circumferential shortening, maximal systolic elastance, and contractile efficiency were significantly depressed in ACF and significantly improved in ACF + allopurinol rats, all of which occurred in the absence of changes in the maximum O2 consumption rate measured in isolated cardiomyocytes using the extracellular flux analyzer. However, the improvement in contractile function is not paralleled by any attenuation in LV dilatation, LV end-diastolic pressure/wall stress, and lung weight. In conclusion, allopurinol improves LV contractile function and efficiency possibly by diminishing the known XO-mediated ROS effects on myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. However, LV remodeling and diastolic properties are not improved, which may explain the failure of XO inhibition to improve symptoms and hospitalizations in patients with severe heart failure. Source


Ravi S.,UAB Mitochondrial Medicine Laboratory | Ravi S.,Center for Free Radical Biology | Johnson M.S.,UAB Mitochondrial Medicine Laboratory | Johnson M.S.,Center for Free Radical Biology | And 14 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

Platelet aggregation is an essential response to tissue injury and is associated with activation of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase, and is also a highly energetic process. The two central energetic pathways in the cell, glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, are susceptible to damage by reactive lipid species. Interestingly, how platelet metabolism is affected by the oxidative stress associated with aggregation is largely unexplored. To address this issue, we examined the response of human platelets to 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid species which is generated during thrombus formation and during oxidative stress. Elevated plasma 4-HNE has been associated with renal failure, septic shock and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In this study, we found that 4-HNE decreased thrombin stimulated platelet aggregation by approximately 60%. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated that underlying our previous observation of a stimulation of platelet energetics by thrombin glycolysis and TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) metabolites were increased. Next, we assessed the effect of both 4-HNE and alkyne HNE (A-HNE) on bioenergetics and targeted metabolomics, and found a stimulatory effect on glycolysis, associated with inhibition of bioenergetic parameters. In the presence of HNE and thrombin glycolysis was further stimulated but the levels of the TCA metabolites were markedly suppressed. Identification of proteins modified by A-HNE followed by click chemistry and mass spectrometry revealed essential targets in platelet activation including proteins involved in metabolism, adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, aggregation, vesicular transport, protein folding, antioxidant proteins, and small GTPases. In summary, the biological effects of 4-HNE can be more effectively explained in platelets by the integrated effects of the modification of an electrophile responsive proteome rather than the isolated effects of candidate proteins. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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