Center for Forensic Science Research and Education

Willow Grove, PA, United States

Center for Forensic Science Research and Education

Willow Grove, PA, United States
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Lu A.,Arcadia University | Lu A.,Center for Forensic Science Research and Education | Scott K.S.,Arcadia University | Scott K.S.,Center for Forensic Science Research and Education | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2017

In 2013, the National Safety Council's Alcohol Drugs and Impairment Division added zolpidem and carisoprodol and its metabolite meprobamate to the list of Tier 1 drugs that should be tested for in all suspected drug impaired driving and motor vehicle fatality investigations. We describe the validation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for both drugs in whole blood, and the utilization of the ELISA to assess their positivity in a sample of 322 suspected impaired driving cases that was retrospectively screened using the validated assays. The occurrence of carisoprodol/ meprobamate was found to be 1.2%, and for zolpidem, 1.6%. In addition, we analyzed a large dataset (n = 1,672) of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs (DUID) test results from a laboratory performing high volume DUID testing to assess the frequency of detection of both drugs after implementing the expanded NSC scope. Carisoprodol or meprobamate were found positive in 5.9% (n = 99) of these samples, while zolpidem was found positive in 5.3% (n = 89) in drivers who in many cases had been found to be negative for other drugs. Carisoprodol and zolpidem are both potent CNS depressants and are appropriate additions to the recommended NSC scope of testing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.


Logan B.K.,Center for Forensic Science Research and Education | Logan B.K.,Grove Labs | Lowrie K.J.,Center for Forensic Science Research and Education | Turri J.L.,Center for Forensic Science Research and Education | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2013

This report describes the review and update of a set of minimum recommendations for the toxicological investigation of suspected alcohol and drug-impaired driving cases and motor vehicle fatalities involving drugs or alcohol. The recommendations have the goal of ensuring that a consistent set of data regarding the most frequently encountered drugs linked to driving impairment is collected for practical application in the investigation of these cases and to allow epidemiological monitoring and the development of evidence-based public policy on this important public safety issue. The recommendations are based on a survey of practices in US laboratories performing this kind of analysis, consideration of existing epidemiological crash and arrest data and practical considerations of widely available technology platforms in laboratories performing this work. The final recommendations were derived from a consensus meeting of experts recruited from survey respondents and the membership of the National Safety Council's Alcohol, Drug and Impairment Division (formerly known as the Committee on Alcohol and Other Drugs, CAOD). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Zhu H.,Rutgers University | Zhu H.,Rutgers Center for Computational and Integrative Biology | Zhang J.,Rutgers University | Zhang J.,Rutgers Center for Computational and Integrative Biology | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2014

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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