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Wong K.T.,University of Malaya | Ng K.Y.,University of Malaya | Ong K.C.,University of Malaya | Ng W.F.,Yan Chai Hospital | And 15 more authors.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Aims: To investigate if two important epidemic viral encephalitis in children, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalomyelitis and Japanese encephalitis (JE) whose clinical and pathological features may be nonspecific and overlapping, could be distinguished. Methods: Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: All 13 cases of EV71 encephalomyelitis collected from Asia and France invariably showed stereotyped distribution of inflammation in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex and meninges. Anterior pons, corpus striatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were always uninflamed. In contrast, the eight JE cases studied showed inflammation involving most neuronal areas of the central nervous system, including the areas that were uninflamed in EV71 encephalomyelitis. Lesions in both infections were nonspecific, consisting of perivascular and parenchymal infiltration by inflammatory cells, oedematous/necrolytic areas, microglial nodules and neuronophagia. Viral inclusions were absent. Conclusions: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were useful to identify the causative virus, localizing viral antigens and RNA, respectively, almost exclusively to neurones. The stereotyped distribution of inflammatory lesions in EV71 encephalomyelitis appears to be very useful to help distinguish it from JE. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society. Source


Lee J.C.-I.,National Taiwan University | Lee J.C.-I.,Institute of Forensic Medicine | Tsai L.-C.,Central University of Costa Rica | Hwa P.-Y.,Central University of Costa Rica | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2010

We report on a novel and rapid strategy for the simultaneous identification of both avian species and gender by analyzing a section of the CHD gene. The CHD gene is carried by the avian sex determining chromosomes where a female bird carries both a W and Z chromosome but a cock bird carries two copies of the Z chromosome. Two primer pairs, CHD1F/CHD1R and P2/P8, were used to amplify a part of the CHD gene from 144 samples corresponding to 58 avian species. For all species tested, two fragments were observed at least in one amplification for female samples. All tested species produced species specific size fragments allowing both sex determination and species identification using these primer pairs. However, special care is still warranted as so few samples have been characterised. This novel strategy for avian species and gender identification using the CHD gene was developed for a number of applications from ecology to forensic science. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wisbey D.,Center for Forensic Science
Journal of Forensic Identification | Year: 2010

The popularity of Nike Air Force One sneakers has resulted in the sneaker being a common brand submitted for footwear examination. In the course of the examination process, footwear examiners have contacted the Nike Corporation for manufacturing details. In some cases, Nike was unable to provide information because of the sneaker being counterfeit. This paper will highlight some methods to assist the footwear examiner in assessing the likelihood that the submitted sneaker may be counterfeit. Source


Gill P.,Center for Forensic Science | Gill P.,University of Oslo | Buckleton J.,ESR
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

In this paper we critically examine the causes of the underlying confusion that relates to the issue of low-template (LT) DNA profile interpretation. Firstly, there is much difficulty in attempting to distinguish between LT-DNA vs. conventional DNA because there is no discrete 'cut-off' point that can be reasonably defined or evaluated. LT-DNA is loosely characterised by drop-out (where alleles may be missing) and drop-in (where additional alleles may be present). We have previously described probabilistic methods that can be used to incorporate these phenomena using likelihood ratio (LR) principles. This is preferred to the random man not excluded (RMNE) method, because we cannot identify a coherent way forward within the restrictions provided by this framework. Most LT-DNA profiles are interpreted using a 'consensus' profile method, we called this the 'biological model', where only those alleles that are duplicated in consecutive tests are reported. We recognise that there is an increased need for probabilistic models to take precedence over the biological model. These models are required for all kinds of DNA profiles, not just those that are believed to be low-template. We also recognise that there is a need for education and training if the methods we recommend are to be widely introduced. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hookano R.,Syracuse University | Knight L.D.,Syracuse University | Knight L.D.,Center for Forensic Science | Knight L.D.,New York University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

With the increased popularity of online social networking services (SNS) such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Google+, we propose that a wealth of new resources is available for medicolegal death investigation. Recognizing this potential, we identified cases in which social media had been useful in the past in our office and asked our investigative staff to consider using social media in current cases. These cases provided illustrative examples for this primer regarding how information from SNS was used in death investigations in our office. Information gleaned from online social media aided in establishing preliminary identification of a decedent, locating next-of-kin, investigating the circumstances of death as relevant to the manner of death, corroborating eyewitness accounts, and providing information relevant to time of death. Potential pitfalls were identified, such as shared accounts or online impostors. SNS proved useful to the medicolegal death investigator and medical examiner, so long as their limitations were recognized. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences 586 November 2013 10.1111/1556-4029.12173 Technical Note Pathology/Biology Technical Notes © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

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