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Lee H.-M.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Shin J.-E.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Jang Y.-M.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Kim H.-Y.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Kim M.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Residual solvents in foods are defined as organic volatile chemicals used or produced in manufacturing of extracts or additives, or functional foods. The solvents are not completely eliminated by practical manufacturing techniques and they also may become contaminated by solvents from packing, transportation or storage in warehouses. Because residual solvents have no nutritional value but may be hazardous to human health, there is a need to remove them from the final products or reduce their amounts to below acceptable levels. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an analytical method for the screening of residual solvents in health functional foods. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to constitute a reasonable management system based on the current state of the market and case studies of foreign countries. Eleven volatile solvents such as MeOH, EtOH, trichloroethylene and hexane were separated depending on their column properties, temp. and time using Gas Chromatography (GC). After determining the GC conditions, a sample preparation method using HSS (Head Space Sampling) was developed. From the results, a method for analyzing residual solvents in health functional foods was developed considering matrix effect and interference from the sample obtained from the solution of solvents-free health functional foods spiked with 11 standards solutions. Validation test using the developed GC/HSS/MS (Mass Spectrometry) method was followed by tests for precision, accuracy, recovery, linearity and adequate sensitivity. Finally, examination of 104 samples grouped in suits was performed by the developed HSS/GC/MS for screening the solvents. The 11 solvents were isolated from health functional foods based on vapor pressure difference, and followed by separation within 15 minutes in a single run. The limt of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery and coefficient of variation (C.V.) of these compounds determined by the HSS/GC/MS were found to be 0.1 pg/mL, 0.1-125 pg/ g, 51.0-104.6%, and less than 15%, respectively. Using the developed HSS/GC/MS method, residual solvent from 16 out of 104 health functional products were detected as a EtOH. This method therefore seems to be a valuable extension of analytical method for the identification of residual solvents in health functional food. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


Kang E.G.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Jung Y.H.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Jung J.H.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | Kim M.R.,Center for Food and Drug Inspection | And 6 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This research was carried out to investigate residues of neomycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amitraz, 2,4-dimethylaniline (one of amitraz's metabolites), and coumaphos in honey in order to intensively control their use following the establishment of Korean maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs in honey in 2007. To monitor for residues, 110 honeys and food products with honey were collected and analyzed. The collected honeys included acasia, mixed flower, chestnut, rape flower, jujube, and native types. Neomycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, oxytetracycline, and amitraz were not detected among samples. Coumaphos was found in the Korean acasia honey at 0.02 mg/kg, but its concentration was under the MRL (0.1 mg/kg) for coumaphos. According to the results, there were no violations of the Korean MRLs of veterinary drugs in honey. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


PubMed | Center for Food and Drug Inspection and National Institutes for Food and Drug Control
Type: | Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2016

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of 7.2 kb, which consists of a 5 noncoding region, three open reading frames (ORFs), and a 3 noncoding region. ORF1 is diverse between genotypes and encodes the nonstructural proteins, which include the enzymes needed for virus replication. In addition to its role in virus replication, the function of ORF1 is relevant to viral adaption in cultured cells and may also relate to virus infection and HEV pathogenicity. ORF2 protein is the capsid protein, which is about 660 amino acids in length. It not only protects the integrity of the viral genome but is also involved in many important physiological activities, such as virus assembly, infection, and host interaction. The main immune epitopes, especially neutralizing epitopes, are located on ORF2 protein, which is a candidate antigen for vaccine development. ORF3 protein is a phosphoprotein of 113 or 114 amino acids with a molecular weight of 13 kDa with multiple functions that can also induce strong immune reactivity.

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