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Purushothaman N.,SRM University | Newmaster S.G.,University of Guelph | Ragupathy S.,University of Guelph | Stalin N.,SRM University | And 8 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

DNA barcoding is a desirable tool for medicinal product authentication. DNA barcoding is a method for species identification using short DNA sequences that are conserved within species, but variable between species. Unlike animals, there is no single universal DNA barcode locus for plants. Coding markers, matK and rbcL, and noncoding markers, trnH-psbA (chloroplast) and ITS2 (nuclear), have been reported to be suitable for the DNA barcoding of plants with varying degree of success. Sixty-four accessions from 20 species of the medicinal plant Cassia were collected, and analyzed for these 4 DNA barcoding markers. PCR amplification was 100% successful for all 4 markers, while intra-species divergence was 0 for all 4 Cassia species in which multiple accessions were studied. Assuming 1.0% divergence as the minimum requirement for discriminating 2 species, the 4 markers could only differentiate 15 to 65% of the species studied when used separately. Adding indels to the divergence increased the percentage of species discrimination by trnH-psbA to 90%. In 2-locus barcoding, while matK+rbcL (which is recommended by Consortium for the Barcoding of Life) discriminated 90% of the species, the other combinations of matK+ITS and rbcL+trnH-psbA showed 100% species discrimination. However, matK is plagued with primer issues. The combination of rbcL+trnH-psbA provided the most accurate (100% species ID) and efficient tiered DNA barcoding tool for the authentication of Cassia medicinal products. © FUNPEC-RP. Source


Senthilkumar U.,Ecology and the Environment | Senthilkumar U.,Center for Floristic Research | Choudhary R.K.,Agharkar Research Institute | Sanjappa M.,Botanical Survey of India | And 5 more authors.
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2014

The Andaman and Nicobar islands, located in the Andaman Sea between peninsular India and Indo-Malaya, are part of two of the 34 mega-diversity hotspots of the world. These islands are characterized by their vegetation types such as littoral, mangroves, wet and semi-evergreen forests, and rainforests, and for being the home for six aboriginal tribes of Negrito and Mongoloid descent. The islands are also home to a number of migrants and "settlers" from the Indian mainland and Myanmar. The aboriginal tribes and the settlers have a long history of association with the island's bioresources. We surveyed the ethnic uses of rattans, the unique climbing palms, about 63% of which are endemic to these islands. Our ethnobotanical survey revealed several uses of rattans by the Nicobarese and Shompens, the two major ethnic communities of the Nicobar Islands. We also estimated the revenue generated among those involved in the rattan trade (collectors, processors, and exporters). Source


Nehru P.,Care Earth Trust | Nehru P.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Gnanasekaran G.,Care Earth Trust | Gnanasekaran G.,Center for Floristic Research | And 4 more authors.
Check List | Year: 2012

Humans have altered the forests of urban regions drastically, thereby reducing the original forests to isolated fragments. Such fragments may contain remnants of the original vegetation. Nanmangalam Reserve Forest (NRF), located in the Metropolitan Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, is an example of such a forest fragment, covering an area of 321 ha. A total of 449 angiosperm species belonging to 313 genera representing 83 families were recorded from NRF. Amongst the species, 79% were dicots and 21% were monocots. The most genera/species rich families were Fabaceae (37/69) and Poaceae (34/52). The species rich genera included Cassia (10), Crotalaria (7), Erogrostis, Hedyotis and Phyllanthus (6 each). Six endemic species were recorded. This diversity amidst a rapidly expanding city has to be protected in order to enable the conservation agenda of urban areas. © 2012 Check List and Authors. Source


Irwin S.J.,Center for Floristic Research | Thomas S.,VR Bioremediation Services | Rathinaraj P.,Womens Christian College | Duvuru N.,Center for Floristic Research
Check List | Year: 2015

This paper deals with the list of flowering plants from the Theosophical Society campus (TS), Chennai. The Theosophical Society campus is the second largest green patch in the city of Chennai, next to Guindy National Park. A total of 449 taxa have been recorded comprising 161 trees, 84 shrubs, 179 herbs and 25 climbers that are distributed in 353 genera, represented in 85 families, 11 super orders and 35 orders as per the APG III classification. Superorder Fabids and Lamids account for about 49% of the taxa. Paleotropical elements (66%) dominate the TS campus followed by Neotropical elements (31%). The present study reveals that TS campus has a rich and diverse exotic flora. The garden department of this protected campus takes care of conserving the floral diversity. Hence, Theosophical Society campus can be considered as a major biodiversity heritage site and an indispensible lung space for the city of Chennai. © 2015 Check List and Authors. Source


Irwin S.J.,Center for Floristic Research | Narasimhan D.,Center for Floristic Research
Rheedea | Year: 2011

This is an earnest effort to review the earlier recorded endemic genera of angiosperms in India and assess those present within the political boundaries of India. It is concluded that only 49 genera are endemic to India, of which 36 are unispecific. Peninsular India has a high concentration of endemic genera (40 genera). Four are confined to Indian Himalaya and three to Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Genus Hardwickia is widely distributed in the dry deciduous forests of Peninsular and North India, excluding Northeast India. Bentinckia which is distributed in Peninsular India and Nicobar Islands is the only genus with disjunct distribution. About 71% of the genera are herbaceous and their concentration is more in wet evergreen forests and grasslands. Threat assessment has not been made for majority of the species of these genera. There is an urgent need for an assessment based on current IUCN Criteria. Source

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