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Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Mimmi M.C.,University of Udine | Ballico M.,University of Udine | Amoroso F.,University of Udine | Calcaterra V.,University of Pavia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2015

Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion has been proposed as a prenatal intervention to ameliorate congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) prognosis. Tracheal occlusion (TO) prevents pulmonary fluid egress, leading to tissue expansion, reversal of lung hypoplasia, and potential maturation. Fetal lung maturity strongly correlates with amniotic fluid (AF) phospholipidic composition. In this preliminary study, we characterized the AF phospholipidic profile in CDH-induced, TO-treated, and healthy fetal lambs to define the prenatal treatment benefits of TO on lung maturity. CDH induction was performed at 70 days of gestation, TO was carried out at 102 days of gestation, and caesarean section was carried out at 136 days of gestation. AF samples, taken at 102-136 days of gestation, were evaluated using mass spectrometry. The analysis focused on phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs). The most abundant phosphatidylcholine species retrieved in healthy AF was POPC [PC(18:1/16:0)], while the level of DPPC [PC(16:0/16:0)] was extremely low at both gestational ages. CDH induction caused a decrease in POPC and many other PCs. A substantial return of some PCs, in particular POPC, PC(34:2) and PC(18:0/16:0), to a more physiological level was prompted by TO. SMs were unaltered. The AF phospholipidic profile could provide prenatal prognostic markers of CDH and possible indices of lung maturation after fetal treatment. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Strong B.S.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy | Shaaban A.F.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy
Chimerism | Year: 2015

Compulsory exposure to genetically foreign maternal tissue imprints in offspring sustained tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMA). Immunological tolerance to NIMA was first described by Dr. Ray D. Owen for women genetically negative for erythrocyte rhesus (Rh) antigen with reduced sensitization from developmental Rh exposure by their mothers. Extending this analysis to HLA haplotypes has uncovered the exciting potential for therapeutically exploiting NIMA-specific tolerance naturally engrained in mammalian reproduction for improved clinical outcomes after allogeneic transplantation. Herein, we summarize emerging scientific concepts stemming from tolerance to NIMA that includes postnatal maintenance of microchimeric maternal origin cells in offspring, expanded accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells with NIMA-specificity, along with teleological benefits and immunological consequences of NIMA-specific tolerance conserved across mammalian species. © 2016 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source


Jones H.N.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy | Crombleholme T.,Colorado Fetal Care Center | Habli M.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor -1 (hIGF-1) in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined glucose transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of IUGR and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line.Methods:At gestational day 18, animals were divided into four groups; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL), UABL+Ad-hIGF-1 (108 PFU), UABL+Ad-LacZ (108 PFU). At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. For human studies, BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were grown in F12 complete medium +10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ±Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 hours. MOIs of 10:1 and 100:1 were utilized. The RNA, protein expression and localization of glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, 8, and 9 were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry.Results:In both the mouse placenta and BeWo, GLUT1 regulation was linked to altered protein localization. GLUT3, localized to the mouse fetal endothelial cells, was reduced in placental insufficiency but maintained with Ad-I GF-1 treatment. Interestingly, GLUT8 expression was reduced in the UABL placenta but up-regulated following Ad-IGF-1 in both mouse and human systems. GLUT9 expression in the mouse was increased by Ad-IGF-1 but this was not reflected in the BeWo, where Ad-IGF-1 caused moderate membrane relocalization.Conclusion:Enhanced GLUT isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism in Ad-hIGF-1mediated correction of placental insufficiency. © 2013 Jones et al. Source


Kinder J.M.,Burnet Institute | Jiang T.T.,Burnet Institute | Ertelt J.M.,Burnet Institute | Xin L.,Burnet Institute | And 3 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Exposure to maternal tissue during in utero development imprints tolerance to immunologically foreign non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) that persists into adulthood. The biological advantage of this tolerance, conserved across mammalian species, remains unclear. Here, we show maternal cells that establish microchimerism in female offspring during development promote systemic accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) with NIMA specificity. NIMA-specific Tregs expand during pregnancies sired by males expressing alloantigens with overlapping NIMA specificity, thereby averting fetal wastage triggered by prenatal infection and non-infectious disruptions of fetal tolerance. Therefore, exposure to NIMA selectively enhances reproductive success in second-generation females carrying embryos with overlapping paternally inherited antigens. These findings demonstrate that genetic fitness, canonically thought to be restricted to Mendelian inheritance, is enhanced in female placental mammals through vertically transferred maternal cells that promote conservation of NIMA and enforce cross-generational reproductive benefits. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Strong B.S.I.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy | Strong B.S.I.,University of Cincinnati | Ryken K.O.,University of Iowa | Lee A.E.,Center for Fetal Cellular and Molecular Therapy | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

Transplanting stem cells before birth offers an unparalleled opportunity to initiate corrective treatment for numerous childhood diseases with minimal or no host conditioning. Although long-term engraftment has been demonstrated following in utero hematopoietic cellular transplantation during immune quiescence, it is unclear if prenatal tolerance becomes unstable with immune activation such as during a viral syndrome. Using a murine model of in utero hematopoietic cellular transplantation, the impact of an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus on prenatal allospecific tolerance was examined. The findings in this report illustrate that established mechanisms of donor-specific tolerance are strained during potent immune activation. Specifically, a transient reversal in the anergy of alloreactive lymphocytes is seen in parallel with the global immune response toward the virus. However, these changes return to baseline following resolution of the infection. Importantly, prenatal engraftment remains stable during and after immune activation. Collectively, these findings illustrate the robust nature of allospecific tolerance in prenatal mixed chimerism compared with models of postnatal chimerism and provides additional support for the prenatal approach to the treatment of congenital benign cellular disease. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Source

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