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Fingar K.R.,Truven Health Analytics | Lob S.H.,Lob Consulting | Dove M.S.,Child and Adolescent Health Program | Gradziel P.,Center for Family Health | Curtis M.P.,Child and Adolescent Health Program
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2016

Objectives Women with longer, healthier pregnancies have more time to enroll in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), biasing associations between WIC and birth outcomes. We examined the association between WIC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and perinatal death (PND) using a fetuses-at-risk approach to address this bias, termed gestational age bias. Methods We linked California Medi-Cal recipients with a singleton live birth or fetal death from the 2010 Birth Cohort to WIC participant data (n = 236,564). We implemented a fetuses-at-risk approach using survival analysis, which compared, in each week of gestation, women whose pregnancies reached the same length and who had the same opportunity to utilize WIC. In each gestational week, we assessed WIC enrollment and the number of food packages redeemed thus far and computed hazard ratios (HR) using survival models with time-varying exposures and effects. Results Adjusting for maternal socio-demographic and health characteristics, WIC enrollment was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 29–36 (HR29 = 0.71; HR36 = 0.52); LBW from week 26–40 (HR26 = 0.77; HR40 = 0.64); and PND from week 29–43 (HR29 = 0.78; HR43 = 0.69) (p < 0.05). The number of food packages redeemed was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 27–36 (HR27 = 0.90; HR36 = 0.84); LBW from week 25–42 (HR25 = 0.93; HR42 = 0.88); and PND from week 27–46 (HR27 = 0.94; HR46 = 0.91) (p < 0.05). Conclusions for Practice To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between WIC and birth outcomes using this approach. We found that beginning from about 29 weeks, WIC enrollment was associated with a reduced risk of PTB by 29–48 %, LBW by 23–36 %, and PND by 22–31 %. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Marchi K.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Fisher-Owens S.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Weintraub J.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Yu Z.,Center for Family Health | Braveman P.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Public Health Reports | Year: 2010

Objectives. We examined the prevalence of dental care during pregnancy and reasons for lack of care. Methods. Using a population-based survey of 21,732 postpartum women in California during 2002-2007, we calculated prevalence of dental problems, receipt of care, and reasons for non-receipt of care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of non-receipt of care by maternal characteristics. Results. Overall, 65% of women had no dental visit during pregnancy; 52% reported a dental problem prenatally, with 62% of those women not receiving care. After adjustment, factors associated with non-receipt of care included non-European American race/ethnicity, lack of a college degree, lack of private prenatal insurance, no first-trimester prenatal insurance coverage, lower income, language other than English spoken at home, and no usual source of pre-pregnancy medical care. The primary reason stated for non-receipt of dental care was lack of perceived need, followed by financial barriers. Conclusions. Most pregnant women in this study received insufficient dental care. Odds were elevated not only among the poorest, least educated mothers, but also among those with moderate incomes or some college education. The need for dental care during pregnancy must be promoted widely among both the public and providers, and financial barriers to dental care should be addressed. ©2010 Association of Schools of Public Health.


Braveman P.,University of California at San Francisco | Marchi K.,University of California at San Francisco | Egerter S.,University of California at San Francisco | Kim S.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010

To describe income levels and the prevalence of major hardships among women during or just before pregnancy. We separately analyzed 2002-2006 population-based postpartum survey data from California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (n = 18,332) and 19 states participating in CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 143,452) to examine income and several hardships (divorce/separation, domestic violence, homelessness, financial difficulties, spouse/partner's or respondent's involuntary job loss or incarceration, and, in California only, food insecurity and no social support) during/just before pregnancy. In both samples, over 30% of women were poor (income ≤100% of federal poverty level [FPL]) and 20% near-poor (101-200% FPL); and around 60% of low-income (poor or near-poor) women experienced at least one hardship. While hardship prevalence decreased significantly as income increased, many non-low-income women also experienced hardships; e.g., in California, 43% of all women and 13% with incomes >400% FPL experienced one or more hardships. These findings paint a disturbing picture of experiences around the time of pregnancy in the United States for many women giving birth and their children, particularly because 60% had previous births. The high prevalence of low income and of serious hardships during pregnancy is of concern, given previous research documenting the adverse health consequences of these experiences and recognition of pregnancy as a critical period for health throughout the life course. Low income and major hardships around the time of pregnancy should be addressed as mainstream U.S. maternal-infant health and social policy issues. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Mitchell C.,Office of Health Equity | Mitchell C.,Center for Family Health | Lawton E.,Center for Family Health | Morton C.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2014

After several decades of declining rates, maternal mortality climbed in California from a three-year moving average of 9.4 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1999-2001 to a high of 14.0 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2006-2008 (p < 0.001). The Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division of the California Department of Public Health developed a mixed method approach to identify and investigate maternal deaths to inform prevention strategies. This paper describes the methodology of the California Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review (CA-PAMR) and its advantages for improved surveillance, cause of death analysis, and translation of findings. From 2002 to 2004, 1,598,792 live births occurred in California and 555 women died while pregnant or within one year of pregnancy. A screening algorithm identified cases for review that were likely to be pregnancy-related. Medical records were then abstracted and reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee to determine cause of death, contributing factors, and opportunities for quality improvement. Mixed methods were used to analyze, synthesize and translate Committee recommendations for improved care. Of 211 cases selected for review, 145 deaths were determined to be pregnancy-related. CA-PAMR methods corrected misclassification of cases and more accurately identified the leading causes of death. Cardiovascular disease emerged as the leading cause of pregnancy-related deaths (20 %), and African-American women were disproportionately represented among cardiovascular deaths. Overall, the chance to prevent the fatal outcome appeared good or strong in 40 % of cases reviewed. The CA-PAMR methodology resulted in additional case finding, improved accuracy of the causes of pregnancy-related deaths, and evidence to guide development of prevention and quality improvement efforts. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Miller E.,University of Pittsburgh | McCaw B.,Kaiser Permanente | Humphreys B.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Mitchell C.,Center for Family Health
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2015

The Institute of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and national healthcare organizations recommend screening and counseling for intimate partner violence (IPV) within the US healthcare setting. The Affordable Care Act includes screening and brief counseling for IPV as part of required free preventive services for women. Thus, IPV screening and counseling must be implemented safely and effectively throughout the healthcare delivery system. Health professional education is one strategy for increasing screening and counseling in healthcare settings, but studies on improving screening and counseling for other health conditions highlight the critical role of making changes within the healthcare delivery system to drive desired improvements in clinician screening practices and health outcomes. This article outlines a systems approach to the implementation of IPV screening and counseling, with a focus on integrated health and advocacy service delivery to support identification and interventions, use of electronic health record (EHR) tools, and cross-sector partnerships. Practice and policy recommendations include (1) ensuring staff and clinician training in effective, client-centered IPV assessment that connects patients to support and services regardless of disclosure; (2) supporting enhancement of EHRs to prompt appropriate clinical care for IPV and facilitate capturing more detailed and standardized IPV data; and (3) integrating IPV care into quality and meaningful use measures. Research directions include studies across various health settings and populations, development of quality measures and patient-centered outcomes, and tests of multilevel approaches to improve the uptake and consistent implementation of evidence-informed IPV screening and counseling guidelines. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.


Ostwani W.,University South F 6790 5243 | Novis S.,University of Michigan | Brady A.,Center for Family Health | Brown D.J.,University of Michigan | Mohr B.A.,Hospital Medicine Child Protection Team
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

A stridulous, dysphonic cry with no external signs of trauma is a unique and abstract unusual presenting sign for physical abuse. We report a previously healthy neonate with unremarkable birth history and medical history who presented with stridor and hypopharyngeal perforation due to physical abuse. This case highlights the need for further evaluation for traumatic injuries in the setting of unexplained new-onset stridor and consideration of physical abuse in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Cawley M.J.,University of the Sciences in Philadelphia | Warning W.J.,Center for Family Health
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2016

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patient’s general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of (“pharmacist or pharmacy”) AND (“obstructive sleep apnea”) AND (“sleep disorders”) AND (“continuous positive airway pressure—CPAP”) were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86 %) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67 % of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role of pharmacists performing OSA screening services remains limited due to the small number of studies available and differences in methodological assessment. More qualitative studies including randomized controlled trials are needed to better identify the value of pharmacists providing this novel service. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.


PubMed | Center for Family Health and University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of clinical pharmacy | Year: 2016

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patients general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of (pharmacist or pharmacy) AND (obstructive sleep apnea) AND (sleep disorders) AND (continuous positive airway pressure-CPAP) were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86%) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67% of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role of pharmacists performing OSA screening services remains limited due to the small number of studies available and differences in methodological assessment. More qualitative studies including randomized controlled trials are needed to better identify the value of pharmacists providing this novel service.


Aggarwal D.,Center for Family Health | Warmerdam B.,Center for Family Health | Wyatt K.,Center for Family Health | Ahmad S.,Center for Family Health | Shaw G.M.,Stanford University
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2015

Background: Approximately 6.3 million live births and fetal deaths occurred during the ascertainment period in the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program registry. American-Indian and non-Hispanic white women delivered 40,268 and 2,044,118 births, respectively. While much information has been published about non-Hispanic white infants, little is known regarding the risks of birth defects among infants born to American-Indian women. Methods: This study used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program to explore risks of selected birth defects in offspring of American-Indian relative to non-Hispanic white women in California. The study population included all live births and fetal deaths 20 weeks or greater from 1983 to 2010. Prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson regression for 51 groupings of birth defects. Results: Prevalence ratios were estimated for 51 groupings of birth defects. Of the 51, nine had statistically precise results ranging from 0.78 to 1.85. The eight groups with elevated risks for American-Indian births were reduction deformities of brain, anomalies of anterior segments, specified anomalies of ear, ostium secundum type atrial septal defect, specified anomalies of heart, anomalies of the aorta, anomalies of great veins, and cleft lip with cleft palate. Conclusion: Our results suggest that American-Indian women having babies in California may be at higher risk for eight birth defect phenotypes compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further research is needed to determine whether these risks are observed among other populations of American-Indian women or when adjusted for potential covariates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Center for Family Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology | Year: 2015

Approximately 6.3 million live births and fetal deaths occurred during the ascertainment period in the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program registry. American-Indian and non-Hispanic white women delivered 40,268 and 2,044,118 births, respectively. While much information has been published about non-Hispanic white infants, little is known regarding the risks of birth defects among infants born to American-Indian women.This study used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program to explore risks of selected birth defects in offspring of American-Indian relative to non-Hispanic white women in California. The study population included all live births and fetal deaths 20 weeks or greater from 1983 to 2010. Prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson regression for 51 groupings of birth defects.Prevalence ratios were estimated for 51 groupings of birth defects. Of the 51, nine had statistically precise results ranging from 0.78 to 1.85. The eight groups with elevated risks for American-Indian births were reduction deformities of brain, anomalies of anterior segments, specified anomalies of ear, ostium secundum type atrial septal defect, specified anomalies of heart, anomalies of the aorta, anomalies of great veins, and cleft lip with cleft palate.Our results suggest that American-Indian women having babies in California may be at higher risk for eight birth defect phenotypes compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further research is needed to determine whether these risks are observed among other populations of American-Indian women or when adjusted for potential covariates.

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