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Abuja, Nigeria

Ezebialu I.U.,Anambra State University | Eke A.C.,Harvard University | Ezeagwuna D.A.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Nwachukwu C.E.,Center for Family Health | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Placental malaria is a complication of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with adverse outcomes. Its burden is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, but despite this, data based on histological analysis are scarce from this region. Methods: Questionnaires administered by the researchers were used to obtain information from parturients at a university teaching hospital in southeastern Nigeria between April and November 2010. Maternal blood and placental blood were collected for analysis. Placental blocks were taken for histological analysis. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 17. Results: Three hundred and sixty-five placentas were analyzed, out of which 254 showed histological evidence of malaria parasitization, giving a prevalence of 69.6%. Of the 254 placentas, 23 (9.0%) showed active infection and 196 (77.2%) showed active-on-past infection, while 35 (13.8%) showed past infection. Rural residence, hemoglobin genotype AA, not receiving intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and not sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) were significantly associated with placental malaria. Placental parasite density was inversely related to parity. Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence of placental malaria in southeastern Nigeria is high, and demonstrated that the mean parasite density was inversely related to parity. Significant factors associated with placental malaria were also identified. Appreciation of these significant factors will assist program managers in implementing the strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

Braveman P.,University of California at San Francisco | Marchi K.,University of California at San Francisco | Egerter S.,University of California at San Francisco | Kim S.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010

To describe income levels and the prevalence of major hardships among women during or just before pregnancy. We separately analyzed 2002-2006 population-based postpartum survey data from California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (n = 18,332) and 19 states participating in CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 143,452) to examine income and several hardships (divorce/separation, domestic violence, homelessness, financial difficulties, spouse/partner's or respondent's involuntary job loss or incarceration, and, in California only, food insecurity and no social support) during/just before pregnancy. In both samples, over 30% of women were poor (income ≤100% of federal poverty level [FPL]) and 20% near-poor (101-200% FPL); and around 60% of low-income (poor or near-poor) women experienced at least one hardship. While hardship prevalence decreased significantly as income increased, many non-low-income women also experienced hardships; e.g., in California, 43% of all women and 13% with incomes >400% FPL experienced one or more hardships. These findings paint a disturbing picture of experiences around the time of pregnancy in the United States for many women giving birth and their children, particularly because 60% had previous births. The high prevalence of low income and of serious hardships during pregnancy is of concern, given previous research documenting the adverse health consequences of these experiences and recognition of pregnancy as a critical period for health throughout the life course. Low income and major hardships around the time of pregnancy should be addressed as mainstream U.S. maternal-infant health and social policy issues. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Marchi K.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Fisher-Owens S.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Weintraub J.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Yu Z.,Center for Family Health | Braveman P.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Public Health Reports | Year: 2010

Objectives. We examined the prevalence of dental care during pregnancy and reasons for lack of care. Methods. Using a population-based survey of 21,732 postpartum women in California during 2002-2007, we calculated prevalence of dental problems, receipt of care, and reasons for non-receipt of care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of non-receipt of care by maternal characteristics. Results. Overall, 65% of women had no dental visit during pregnancy; 52% reported a dental problem prenatally, with 62% of those women not receiving care. After adjustment, factors associated with non-receipt of care included non-European American race/ethnicity, lack of a college degree, lack of private prenatal insurance, no first-trimester prenatal insurance coverage, lower income, language other than English spoken at home, and no usual source of pre-pregnancy medical care. The primary reason stated for non-receipt of dental care was lack of perceived need, followed by financial barriers. Conclusions. Most pregnant women in this study received insufficient dental care. Odds were elevated not only among the poorest, least educated mothers, but also among those with moderate incomes or some college education. The need for dental care during pregnancy must be promoted widely among both the public and providers, and financial barriers to dental care should be addressed. ©2010 Association of Schools of Public Health. Source

Ostwani W.,University South F 6790 5243 | Novis S.,University of Michigan | Brady A.,Center for Family Health | Brown D.J.,University of Michigan | Mohr B.A.,Hospital Medicine Child Protection Team
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

A stridulous, dysphonic cry with no external signs of trauma is a unique and abstract unusual presenting sign for physical abuse. We report a previously healthy neonate with unremarkable birth history and medical history who presented with stridor and hypopharyngeal perforation due to physical abuse. This case highlights the need for further evaluation for traumatic injuries in the setting of unexplained new-onset stridor and consideration of physical abuse in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Cawley M.J.,University of the Sciences in Philadelphia | Warning W.J.,Center for Family Health
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2016

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patient’s general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of (“pharmacist or pharmacy”) AND (“obstructive sleep apnea”) AND (“sleep disorders”) AND (“continuous positive airway pressure—CPAP”) were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86 %) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67 % of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role of pharmacists performing OSA screening services remains limited due to the small number of studies available and differences in methodological assessment. More qualitative studies including randomized controlled trials are needed to better identify the value of pharmacists providing this novel service. © 2016, Springer International Publishing. Source

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