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Xie F.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health | Xie F.,McMaster University | Pullenayegum E.M.,McMaster University | Pullenayegum E.M.,Center for Evaluation of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Value in Health | Year: 2010

Objective: To map the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) onto the EuroQol 5 Dimension (EQ-5D) utility index in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A consecutive sample of patients (n = 258) diagnosed with knee OA completed both the WOMAC and the EQ-5D. Regression models with the ordinary least squares (OLS) or the censored least absolute deviations as the estimator were used to establish the mapping function. The WOMAC was represented as explanatory variables in four ways: 1) total score; 2) domain scores (i.e., pain, stiffness, and physical function); 3) domain scores plus pair-wise interaction terms to account for possible nonlinearities; and 4) individual item scores. Goodness-of-fit criteria included the mean absolute error (the primary criterion) and the root mean squared error, and were obtained using an iterative random sampling procedure. Prediction precision was evaluated at individual patient level and at the group level. Results: The model using the OLS estimator and the WOMAC domain scores as explanatory variables had the best fit and was chosen as the preferred mapping model. The prediction error at the individual level exceeded the maximal tolerance value (i.e., the minimally important difference of the EQ-5D) in about 16% of the patients. At the group level, the width of the 95% confidence interval of prediction errors varied from 0.0176 at a sample size of 400 to 0.0359 at a sample size of 100. Conclusions: EQ-5D scores can be predicted using WOMAC domain scores with an acceptable precision at both individual and group levels in patients with mild to moderate knee OA. © 2010, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Source

Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Mbuagbaw L.,Biostatistics Unit | Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Bonono-Momnougui R.-C.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | And 9 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2014

Background: Mobile phone text messaging has been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and to improve communication between patients and health care workers. It is unclear which strategies are most appropriate for scaling up text messaging programmes. We sought to investigate acceptability and readiness for ownership (community members designing, sending and receiving text messages) of a text message programme among a community of clients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yaoundé, Cameroon and to develop a framework for implementation. Methods. We used the mixed-methods sequential exploratory design. In the qualitative strand we conducted 7 focus group discussions (57 participants) to elicit themes related to acceptability and readiness. In the quantitative strand we explored the generalizability of these themes in a survey of 420 clients. Qualitative and quantitative data were merged to generate meta-inferences. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative strands showed high levels of acceptability and readiness despite low rates of participation in other community-led projects. In the qualitative strand, compared to the quantitative strand, more potential service users were willing to pay for a text messaging service, preferred participation of health personnel in managing the project and preferred that the project be based in the hospital rather than in the community. Some of the limitations identified to implementing a community-owned project were lack of management skills in the community, financial, technical and literacy challenges. Participants who were willing to pay were more likely to find the project acceptable and expressed positive feelings about community readiness to own a text messaging project. Conclusion: Community ownership of a text messaging programme is acceptable to the community of clients at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. Our framework for implementation includes components for community members who take on roles as services users (demonstrating clear benefits, allowing a trial period and ensuring high levels of confidentiality) or service providers (training in project management and securing sustainable funding). Such a project can be evaluated using participation rate, clinical outcomes, satisfaction with the service, cost and feedback from users. © 2014 Mbuagbaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Mbuagbaw L.,Father Sean ullivan Research Center | Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Mursleen S.,McMaster University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: Strong international commitment and the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy have led to higher longevity for people living with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Text messaging interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes in people living with HIV. The objectives of this overview were to: map the state of the evidence of text messaging interventions, identify knowledge gaps, and develop a framework for the transfer of evidence to other chronic diseases. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews on text messaging interventions to improve health or health related outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE (Exerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PsycINFO, Web of Science (WoS) and the Cochrane Library on the 17th April 2014. Screening, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were done in duplicate. Our findings were used to develop a conceptual framework for transfer. Results: Our search identified 135 potential systematic reviews of which nine were included, reporting on 37 source studies, conducted in 19 different countries. Seven of nine (77.7%) of these reviews were high quality. There was some evidence for text messaging as a tool to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Text messages also improved attendance at appointments and behaviour change outcomes. The findings were inconclusive for self-management of illness, treatment of tuberculosis and communicating results of medical investigations. The geographical distribution of text messaging research was limited to specific regions of the world. Prominent knowledge gaps included the absence of data on long term outcomes, patient satisfaction, and economic evaluations. The included reviews also identified methodological limitations in many of the primary studies. Conclusions: Global evidence supports the use of text messaging as a tool to improve adherence to medication and attendance at scheduled appointments. Given the similarities between HIV and other chronic diseases (long-term medications, life-long care, strong link to behaviour and the need for home-based support) evidence from HIV may be transferred to these diseases using our proposed framework by integration of HIV and chronic disease services or direct transfer © 2015 Mbuagbaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Xie F.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health | Xie F.,McMaster University | Lo N.-N.,Singapore General Hospital | Pullenayegum E.M.,McMaster University | And 8 more authors.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2010

Objectives: To quantify the improvement in health outcomes in patients after total knee replacement (TKR).Methods: This was a two-year non-randomized prospective observational study in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergone TKR. Patients were interviewed one week before, six months after, and two years after surgery using a standardized questionnaire including the SF-36, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and the Knee Society Clinical Rating Scale (KSS). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to estimate the magnitudes of the changes with and without the adjustment of age, ethnicity, BMI, and years with OA.Results: A total of 298 (at baseline), 176 (at six-months), and 111 (at two-years) eligible patients were included in the analyses. All the scores changed significantly over time, with the exception of SF-36 social functioning, vitality, and mental health. With the adjustment of covariates, the magnitude of changes in these scores was similar to those without the adjustment.Conclusions: Both general and knee-specific physical functioning had been significantly improved after TKR, while other health domains have not been substantially improved after the surgery. © 2010 Xie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Ongolo-Zogo P.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Thabane L.,McMaster University | And 3 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Introduction: Mobile phone ownership and use are growing fastest in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is evidence that mobile phone text messages can be used successfully to significantly improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and reduce treatment interruptions. However, the effects of many mobile health interventions are often reduced by human resource shortages within health facilities. Also, research projects generating evidence for health interventions in developing countries are most often conducted using external funding sources, with limited sustainability and adoption by local governments following completion of the projects. Strong community participation driven by active outreach programmes and mobilisation of community resources are the key to successful adoption and long-term sustainability of effective interventions. Our aim was to develop a framework for community ownership of a text messaging programme to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy; improve communication between patients and doctors and act as a reminder for appointments. Methods and analysis: We will use the exploratory sequential mixed methods approach. The first qualitative phase will entail focus group discussions with people living with HIV at the Yaoundé Central Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon (6-10 participants/group). The second quantitative phase will involve a cross-sectional survey (n=402). In this study, binary logistic regression techniques will be used to determine the factors associated with community readiness and acceptability of ownership. Data from both phases will be merged. Ethics and dissemination: This study has been approved by the Yaoundé Central Hospital Institutional Review Board. The results of this paper will be disseminated as peer-reviewed publications at conferences and as part of a doctoral thesis. Source

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