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Dringen R.,University of Bremen | Dringen R.,Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technologies | Spiller S.,University of Bremen | Neumann S.,University of Bremen | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2016

The inorganic arsenic species arsenate and arsenite are common environmental toxins which contaminate the drinking water in many countries. Chronic intoxication with arsenicals has been connected with various diseases, but causes also neurological complications and impairs cognitive development, learning and memory. In brain, astrocytes have a pivotal role as partners of neurons in homeostatic and metabolic processes. In addition, astrocytes are the first parenchymal brain cell type which encounters substances which cross the blood–brain barrier and are considered as first line of defence against the toxic potential of xenobiotics. Therefore, astrocytes are likely to play a prominent role in the metabolism and potential detoxification of arsenicals in brain. This article summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake and toxicity of arsenate and arsenite in astrocytes and discusses the modulation of the astrocytic glucose and glutathione metabolism by arsenicals. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Dringen R.,University of Bremen | Dringen R.,Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technologies | Brandmann M.,University of Bremen | Brandmann M.,Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technologies | And 3 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2015

Astrocytes have a pivotal role in brain as partners of neurons in homeostatic and metabolic processes. Astrocytes also protect other types of brain cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species and are considered as first line of defence against the toxic potential of xenobiotics. A key component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which generate GSH conjugates that are efficiently exported from the cells by multidrug resistance proteins. Moreover, GSH reacts with the reactive endogenous carbonyls methylglyoxal and formaldehyde to intermediates which are substrates of detoxifying enzymes. In this article we will review the current knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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