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Bashir F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Aslam S.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Shahzadi R.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

In present study Bacillus laterosporus isolated from a commercial formulation showed larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of Aedies aegypti, Anophles stephense and Culex qunquefasciatus. The % mortality without heat treatment was 37.34 against Anophles and 18.67 against Culex. The toxin was heat stable and its toxicity increased with inoculum size and incubation time. The study reveals that this strain of B. Laterosporus has limited potential as an agent for mosquito vector control. Copyright © 2016 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Khan M.H.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Sibtain S.F.,Fuel Research Center | Khan A.R.,Fuel Research Center
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization | Year: 2014

Desulfurization and demineralization of lignite coal with cupric chloride was studied in sealed Pyrex tubes. Temperature, time, volume of cupric chloride solution, and weight of coal were varied to optimize the efficiency. Maximum removal of total sulfur was 50% at 150°C, of pyritic sulfur was 66% at 200°C, and of organic sulfur was 56% at 150°C. A maximum of 54% demineralization was achieved with hot water at 150°C. During this study, the behavior of copper for its reactivity with coal material, washability and retention in ash was also studied. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Imtiaz N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Butt M.T.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Iqbal J.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2012

A new spectrophotometric method which is fairly selective, non extractive, is described here for the determination of lead based upon its colour reaction with 2,5- dimercapto-1, 3,4- thiodiazole (DMTD). According to this lead (II) can be determined within the range from 1.0 to 50 μg per mL in a slightly acidic media (0.005 M HCl), to give a greenish yellow chelate complex, which has an absorption at 375 nm. The reaction proceeds fastly and color remains stable. While no special conditions are followed. The method is recommended for its routine use and is quite accurate, precise, and sensitive. Effect of Foreign ions is also studied at 40 μg/mL of lead.


Abbas N.,University of Punjab | Jamil N.,University of Punjab | Deeba F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

In present study the possible management of waste activated tannery sludge through their simultaneous digestion with cow dung has been investigated. The anaerobic co-digestion of activated sludge can be helpful for recovery of energy and high quality of bio-solid product that can be used as soil conditioner. The accumulative biogas production of tannery sludge and cow dung (TSCD-2) in an ratio of 30:70, TSCD-3 in an ratio of 70:30 and tannery sludge (TS-4, 100 %) were measured as 208, 481 and 70 mL, respectively at temperature ranging from 25-37°C. The waste activated tannery sludge can be used for biogas production with the help of co-digestion by utilizing suitable co-substrate that improve the digestibility as concluded in the results of TSCD-2 and TSCD-3 samples. © 2015, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.


Deeba F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Abbas N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Hussain N.,Applied Chemistry Research Center | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Ahsan M.,Comsat Institutes of Information Technology
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

This paper aims to investigate the different treatment options like chemical, biological and thermal treatments at lab scale on oil contaminated soil. The data revealed that maximum oil reduction was observed in chemical treatment. Hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric acid, ferrous sulphate, calcium hypo-chlorite and kerosene/surfactant were used either in single or in combination to get maximum reduction of oil at different dose rate. Best result was obtained (92.60 %) in treatment having 15 mL of hydrogen peroxide in 100 g soil sample in combination of sulphuric acid (3 mL) at pH 2 and in biological treatments maximum oil reduction (89.22 %) occurred in 20 g of cow dung in 100 g soil sample in combination with 1 g of KH2PO4. In thermal treatment exposure at 450°C for 15 min gave maximum reduction (78.22 %) in oil polluted soil sample as compared to 400 and 300°C. © 2015, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.


Bashir F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Tariq M.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Khan M.H.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Aslam S.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

Fractionation of heavy metals helps to determine their binding form, toxicity, and availability in terrestrial environments. Wastewater irrigation may lead to the accumulation of these metals in soil and plants. Wastewater irrigated soils and vegetables were collected from 6 sites in the vicinity of Lahore and analyzed for cadmium, nickel, chromium, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and copper. The quality of wastewater used for growing crops was also determined. In soil, sequential extraction was adopted to demarcate 5 metal fractions: exchangeable, acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual, which were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accumulations of these metals in vegetables (spinach and bitter gourd) were also assessed and it was found that concentrations of all studied toxic metals in edible parts of the vegetables were above the critical level. The total metal contents in soil were in the order of Mn > Co > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. Correlation analysis between metal concentrations in different fractions of soil and vegetables was performed at 95% and 99% confidence levels. Positive and negative correlations were observed; positive values indicated the bioavailability of these metal fractions to vegetables, while negative values showed that metal concentrations in particular fractions were not bioavailable to plants. © TÜBİTAK.


Irfan M.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Butt T.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Imtiaz N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Abbas N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | And 2 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Pulp and Paper mills are generating millions of tons of wastewater and are major source of water pollution. In this research work, pulping wastes have been characterized and found to contain very high COD, TSS and colour. Coagulation-flocculation process was performed to find out the performance of different coagulants and flocculants like alum, ferric chloride, aluminium chloride, ferrous sulphate, poly aluminium chloride (PAC), cationic and anionic polyacrylamide polymers in individual form as well as in different combinations. The effects of dosing rate, settling time and pH were examined for reduction of COD, TSS and colour. Coagulants used in combinations were found to be more effective in reducing COD, TSS and colour instead of using individual form. The initial pH of the effluent for coagulation process was found to have remarkable effect on COD, TSS and colour removal. The most effective results were found using cationic and anionic polyacrylamide combination with ferric chloride and aluminium chloride and reduction of 76% COD, 95% TSS and 95% colour were observed at pH < 3. © 2013.


Iqbal M.K.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Shafiq T.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Ahmed K.,College of Economy and Administration
Environmental Technology | Year: 2010

Three methods for composting, aerobic, anaerobic and mixed type were compared in three locally fabricated composters of 20 L each, for their effect in accelerating compost maturity and stability using municipal solid waste. The composting process was monitored through determining the changes in temperature, pH, ammonium-N (NH+4-N), nitrate-N (NO-3-N), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, NH+4-N/ NO-3-N, total carbon, nitrogen (TN), potassium (TK), phosphorous (TP), humification index (HI), degree of polymerization (DP), humification rate (HR), CO2, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Temperature increased rapidly from the mesophilic to the thermophilic stage and gradually decreased near the maturation phase. A similar behaviour was recorded for pH, which become slightly alkaline at the maturity level. The composting process decreases the concentration of total carbon, NH+4-N, C/N ratio, and CO2, and increases CEC, HI, DP, HA, TP, TK, and TN. All three composting methods used in this study produce mature compost at different time intervals. A high statically significant correlation was found between the total carbons, C/N ratio, HA, FA, DP, HI, HR, CEC, and ammonium nitrate ratio.


Deeba F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Abbas N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Ahmed R.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Zn, Cu, Cr, Mg and Mn were quantified in selected medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Cassia fistula, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal medicines for heart diseases and tonic for general human health. High Cr contents were observed in T. arjuna bark 0.3480 mg/100 g. The high Mn concentration was found in E. camaldulensis leaves 1.4654 mg/100 g and high Mg concentration in C. fistula twig was 0.5441 mg/100 g.


PubMed | Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Environmental technology | Year: 2010

Three methods for composting, aerobic, anaerobic and mixed type were compared in three locally fabricated composters of 20 L each, for their effect in accelerating compost maturity and stability using municipal solid waste. The composting process was monitored through determining the changes in temperature, pH, ammonium-N (NH(+)4-N), nitrate-N (NO- 3-N), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, NH(+)4-N/NO(-)3-N, total carbon, nitrogen (TN), potassium (TK), phosphorous (TP), humification index (HI), degree ofpolymerization (DP), humification rate (HR), CO2, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Temperature increased rapidly from the mesophilic to the thermophilic stage and gradually decreased near the maturation phase. A similar behaviour was recorded for pH, which become slightly alkaline at the maturity level. The composting process decreases the concentration of total carbon, NH(+)4-N, C/N ratio, and CO2, and increases CEC, HI, DP, HA, TP, TK, and TN. All three composting methods used in this study produce mature compost at different time intervals. A high statically significant correlation was found between the total carbons, C/N ratio, HA, FA, DP, HI, HR, CEC, and ammonium nitrate ratio.

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