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Abbas N.,University of Punjab | Jamil N.,University of Punjab | Deeba F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

In present study the possible management of waste activated tannery sludge through their simultaneous digestion with cow dung has been investigated. The anaerobic co-digestion of activated sludge can be helpful for recovery of energy and high quality of bio-solid product that can be used as soil conditioner. The accumulative biogas production of tannery sludge and cow dung (TSCD-2) in an ratio of 30:70, TSCD-3 in an ratio of 70:30 and tannery sludge (TS-4, 100 %) were measured as 208, 481 and 70 mL, respectively at temperature ranging from 25-37°C. The waste activated tannery sludge can be used for biogas production with the help of co-digestion by utilizing suitable co-substrate that improve the digestibility as concluded in the results of TSCD-2 and TSCD-3 samples. © 2015, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.

Khan M.H.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Sibtain S.F.,Fuel Research Center | Khan A.R.,Fuel Research Center
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization | Year: 2014

Desulfurization and demineralization of lignite coal with cupric chloride was studied in sealed Pyrex tubes. Temperature, time, volume of cupric chloride solution, and weight of coal were varied to optimize the efficiency. Maximum removal of total sulfur was 50% at 150°C, of pyritic sulfur was 66% at 200°C, and of organic sulfur was 56% at 150°C. A maximum of 54% demineralization was achieved with hot water at 150°C. During this study, the behavior of copper for its reactivity with coal material, washability and retention in ash was also studied. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Iqbal M.K.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Nadeem A.,University of Punjab | Hussnain A.,College of Economy and Administration
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2012

Spatial differences in the physical and chemical characteristics related to maturity of composted organic matter are strongly influenced by composting methods. For evaluation of compost maturity three locally fabricated composters (aerobic, mixed type, anaerobic) processes were examined at seven days interval up to 91 days by loading MSW along with bulking agent. Gradual changes in physico chemical characteristics (temperature, pH, moisture, CEC, humification) related to stability and maturity of compost were studied and compared. Increase in ammonia nitrogen level due to rise in temperature was maximum in aerobic process. Substantial increase in CEC in aerobic process was earlier which leads to establish the optimal degree of maturity as compared to other processes. FA and HI decrease rapidly as composting progressed. Optimal level in stability and maturity parameters like C:N, HA, DH and HR were attained earlier in aerobic process as compared to mixed type and anaerobic processes due to continuous aeration. The parameters (HR, DH, FA, HA), which indicate the compost stability were correlated among themselves. The parameters defining maturity such as CEC, ammonia nitrate and C:N ratio were also related to above mention parameters. The compost from the aerobic process provided good humus and micronutrients. Result from this study will assist in method optimization and quality of the compost product.

Iqbal M.K.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Shafiq T.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Ahmed K.,College of Economy and Administration
Environmental Technology | Year: 2010

Three methods for composting, aerobic, anaerobic and mixed type were compared in three locally fabricated composters of 20 L each, for their effect in accelerating compost maturity and stability using municipal solid waste. The composting process was monitored through determining the changes in temperature, pH, ammonium-N (NH+4-N), nitrate-N (NO-3-N), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, NH+4-N/ NO-3-N, total carbon, nitrogen (TN), potassium (TK), phosphorous (TP), humification index (HI), degree of polymerization (DP), humification rate (HR), CO2, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Temperature increased rapidly from the mesophilic to the thermophilic stage and gradually decreased near the maturation phase. A similar behaviour was recorded for pH, which become slightly alkaline at the maturity level. The composting process decreases the concentration of total carbon, NH+4-N, C/N ratio, and CO2, and increases CEC, HI, DP, HA, TP, TK, and TN. All three composting methods used in this study produce mature compost at different time intervals. A high statically significant correlation was found between the total carbons, C/N ratio, HA, FA, DP, HI, HR, CEC, and ammonium nitrate ratio.

Deeba F.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Abbas N.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Hussain N.,Applied Chemistry Research Center | Khan R.A.,Center for Environmental Protection Studies | Ahsan M.,Comsat Institutes of Information Technology
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

This paper aims to investigate the different treatment options like chemical, biological and thermal treatments at lab scale on oil contaminated soil. The data revealed that maximum oil reduction was observed in chemical treatment. Hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric acid, ferrous sulphate, calcium hypo-chlorite and kerosene/surfactant were used either in single or in combination to get maximum reduction of oil at different dose rate. Best result was obtained (92.60 %) in treatment having 15 mL of hydrogen peroxide in 100 g soil sample in combination of sulphuric acid (3 mL) at pH 2 and in biological treatments maximum oil reduction (89.22 %) occurred in 20 g of cow dung in 100 g soil sample in combination with 1 g of KH2PO4. In thermal treatment exposure at 450°C for 15 min gave maximum reduction (78.22 %) in oil polluted soil sample as compared to 400 and 300°C. © 2015, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.

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