Center for Environmental Impact Analysis

Cape Coast, Ghana

Center for Environmental Impact Analysis

Cape Coast, Ghana
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Obiri S.,CSIR Water Research Institute | Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Dodoo D.K.,University Of Cape Coast | Armah F.A.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

This study assesses neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to lead and mercury in borehole, tap and surface water by resident children in the Obuasi municipality in accordance with USEPA risk assessment guidelines. From the results of the study, the hazard quotient for oral ingestion of mercury in tap water in Obuasi is 7.4 and 15 respectively via both central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. This means that approximately 7 and 15 (by both CTE and RME parameters, respectively) resident children in Obuasi are likely to show neurologic effects associated with exposure to mercury and lead such as increased nervousness, loss of memory and/or decrease in concentration, impaired writing ability and tremor. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Obiri S.,Water Research Institute CSIR | Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Cobbina S.J.,University for Development Studies | Armah F.A.,University Of Cape Coast | Naangmenyele Z.,Water Research Institute CSIR
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2011

Objective: Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana, have been measured in this study. Results: The concentrations of the various types of PAHs identified in street dust samples from high vehicular traffic density in the metropolis are as follows: naphthalene, 10,000 μg/kg; acenaphthylene, 13,000 μg/kg; acenaphthene, 76,000 μg/kg; fluorene, 18,900 μg/kg; phenanthrene, 40,000 μg/kg; anthracene, 21,000 μg/kg; fluoranthene, 35,200 μg/kg; pyrene, 119,000 μg/kg; benzo[a]anthracene, 17,700 μg/kg; chrysene, 10,600 μg/kg; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 18,700 μg/kg; benzo[a]pyrene, 10,900 μg/kg and benzo[g, h, i]perylene, 21,000 μg/kg. Calculation of the phenanthrene/anthracene ratio indicated that the PAHs identified in this study were from vehicular fallout as the ratio was less than 10. Conclusion: It is clear from the results of the study that road users in the Tamale metropolis, especially hawkers, are exposed to the harmful effects of PAHs, and this suggests the need for the establishment of mitigation measures by the regulatory agencies. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Obiri S.,Water Research Institute CSIR | Dodoo D.K.,University Of Cape Coast | Essumang D.K.,University Of Cape Coast | Armah F.A.,University Of Cape Coast
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Cancer and non-cancer risk assessment from exposure to As, Cd, and Cu by resident adults and children from different water sources in Obuasi Municipality, Ghana, were measured in this study in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Human Health Risk Assessment guidelines. The results of cancer health risk for resident adults in Obuasi exposed to As in their tap water for both Central Tendency Exposure (CTE) and Reasonable Maximum Exposure (RME) parameters, respectively, are 6.6 × 10-4 and 5.5 × 10-6. For resident children in Odumasi, we obtained 4.7 × 10-1 (CTE) and 6.7 × 10-1 (RME). The results of the study obtained in most cases were found to exceed the USEPA's acceptable cancer risk range of 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-4 (i.e., 1 case of cancer out of 1,000,000 people to 1 case of cancer out of 10,000 people). Similarly, the results of the non-cancer human health risk for both resident adults and children were also found in most cases to be greater than the USEPA's acceptable non-cancer human health hazard index of 1.


Obiri S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Yeboah P.O.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Osae S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Adu-Kumi S.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Obiri S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Mattah P.A.D.,University Of Cape Coast | Mattah M.M.,Central University College of Ghana | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Obiri S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Obiri S.,Center for Environmental Impact Analysis | Yeboah P.O.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Osae S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by AmericanWaterWorks Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 µg/L to 325 µg/L (As), 0.17 µg/L to 340 µg/L (Cd), 0.17 µg/L to 122 µg/L (Pb) and 132 µg/L to 866 µg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10-3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the aforementioned toxic chemicals and diseases associated with them as identified in other studies conducted in different countries as basis for developing policy interventions to address the issue of ASGM mine workers safety in Ghana. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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