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Stevenson M.,Kettering Laboratory Complex Rm 331 | Alexander B.,Kettering Laboratory Complex Rm 331 | Stuart Baxter C.,Kettering Laboratory Complex Rm 331 | Stuart Baxter C.,Center for Environmental Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: Adverse health outcomes related to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, including increased incidences of coronary heart disease, prostate and testicular cancers, and congenital disabilities, have been reported in firefighters or their offspring. We, therefore, measured the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of extracts of used firefighter gear to assess exposure to these agents. Methods: Extracts and known chemical contaminants were examined for estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity in yeast cells expressing the estrogen receptor. Results: Most extracts of used gear and phthalate diesters detectable on this gear displayed strong antiestrogenic effects. Notably, new glove and hood extracts showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusions: Overall, our data suggest that firefighters are exposed to both estrogenic and antiestrogenic agents, possibly phthalates that may lead to health risks observed in this occupation as a result of perturbation of hormone homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.


Lee M.-T.,Cincinnati | Ouyang B.,Cincinnati | Ho S.-M.,Cincinnati | Ho S.-M.,Center for Environmental Genetics | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and its isoforms have different putative functions and expression patterns in prostate cancer. Current studies on 5'-most exons, 0K and 0N, show that their respective promoters are actively involved in transcription. These data, however, do not explain why ERβ isoforms are differentially expressed in normal and cancerous tissues, since 0K and 0N transcripts are detectable in clinical specimens. Various combinations of 5' untranslated exons, termed exon 0Xs, associate with promoter 0K only and exon 0Xs accommodate upstream open reading frames (uORFs) reducing protein expression. Moreover, ERβ1, 2, and 5 are transcriptionally linked to promoter 0K; exon 0Xs are spliced only into ERβ2 and ERβ5 transcripts, suggesting that their expressions are regulated post-transcriptionally by exon 0Xs. This study reveals that expression of ERβ1 is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level, whereas that of ERβ2 and ERβ5 is controlled by the interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Li Y.,Duke University | Xie C.,University of Cincinnati | Murphy S.K.,Duke University | Skaar D.,North Carolina State University | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Lead exposure during early development causes neurodevelopmental disorders by unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic studies have focused recently on determining associations between lead exposure and global DNA methylation; however, such approaches preclude the identification of loci that may alter human disease risk. oBjectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal, postnatal, and early childhood lead exposure can alter the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that control the monoallelic expression of imprinted genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development. Methods: Questionnaire data and serial blood lead levels were obtained from 105 participants (64 females, 41 males) of the Cincinnati Lead Study from birth to 78 months. When participants were adults, we used Sequenom EpiTYPER assays to test peripheral blood DNA to quantify CpG methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at DMRs of 22 human imprinted genes. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear regression. results: Mean blood lead concentration from birth to 78 months was associated with a significant decrease in PEG3 DMR methylation (β = –0.0014; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0005, p = 0.002), stronger in males (β = –0.0024; 95% CI: –0.0038, –0.0009, p = 0.003) than in females (β = –0.0009; 95% CI: –0.0020, 0.0003, p = 0.1). Elevated mean childhood blood lead concentration was also asso-ciated with a significant decrease in IGF2/H19 (β = –0.0013; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0003, p = 0.01) DMR methylation, but primarily in females, (β = –0.0017; 95% CI: –0.0029, –0.0006, p = 0.005) rather than in males, (β = –0.0004; 95% CI: –0.0023, 0.0015, p = 0.7). Elevated blood lead concen-tration during the neonatal period was associated with higher PLAGL1/HYMAI DMR methylation regardless of sex (β = 0.0075; 95% CI: 0.0018, 0.0132, p = 0.01). The magnitude of associations between cumulative lead exposure and CpG methylation remained unaltered from 30 to 78 months. conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that early childhood lead exposure results in sex-dependent and gene-specific DNA methylation differences in the DMRs of PEG3, IGF2/H19, and PLAGL1/HYMAI in adulthood. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.


Ho S.-M.,University of Cincinnati | Ho S.-M.,Center for Environmental Genetics | Ho S.-M.,Cincinnati Veteran Affairs Hospital Medical Center | Cheong A.,University of Cincinnati | And 17 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor exerting lifelong effects on gene expression in rodent prostate cancer (PCa) models. Here, we aimed to determine whether epigenetic events mediating the action of BPA on human prostaspheres enriched in epithelial stem-like/progenitor cells is linked to PCa. We performed genome-wide transcriptome and methylome analyses to identify changes in prostaspheres treated with BPA (10nM, 200nM, and 1000nM) or estradiol-17β (E2) (0.1nM) for 7 days and validated changes in expression, methylation, and histone marks in parallel-treated prostaspheres. BPA/E2-treatment altered expression of 91 genes but not the methylation status of 485 000 CpG sites in BPA/E2-treated prostaspheres.Apanel of 26 genes was found repressed in all treatment groups. Fifteen of them were small nucleolar RNAs with C/D motif (SNORDs), which are noncoding, small nucleolar RNAs known to regulate ribosomal RNA assembly and function. Ten of the most down-regulated SNORDs were further studied. All 10 were confirmed repressed by BPA, but only 3 ratified as E2-repressed. SNORD suppression showed no correlation with methylation status changes in CpG sites in gene regulatory regions. Instead, BPAinduced gene silencing was found to associate with altered recruitments of H3K9me3, H3K4me3, and H3K27me3 to 5β-regulatory/exonic sequences of 5 SNORDs. Expression of 4 out of these 5 SNORDs (SNORD59A, SNORD82, SNORD116, and SNORD117) was shown to be reduced in PCa compared with adjacent normal tissue. This study reveals a novel and unique action of BPA in disrupting expression of PCa-AssociatedSNORDsand a putative mechanism for reprogramming the prostasphere epigenome via histone modification. © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.

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