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Black K.,Center for Environmental Exposure and Disease | Gochfeld M.,Center for Environmental Exposure and Disease | Lioy P.J.,Center for Environmental Exposure and Disease | Fan Z.-H.T.,Laboratories for Emergency Preparedness | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Although all chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites near residential neighborhoods in Jersey City, New Jersey have undergone remediation, recent studies found widespread, but low levels of hexavalent chromium (Cr +6) in house dust both in Jersey City and in communities with no known sources of Cr +6. This study was designed as a follow-up to determine whether there is an association between current Cr +6 levels in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations in young children. Dust samples (N=369) were collected from 123 homes. The median Cr +6 concentration was 3.3 μg/g (mean±SD 5.2±7.5) and the median Cr +6 loading was 1.1 μg/m 2 (1.9±3.1). These levels were not elevated compared with previously reported levels in background communities (median concentration=3.5 μg/g; median loading=2.8 μg/m 2). Urinary chromium concentrations were measured in spot urine samples collected from 150 children, ages 3 months to 6 years. The median uncorrected urinary chromium concentration was 0.19 μg/l (0.22±0.16). Current urinary chromium concentrations were significantly lower than those previously reported before and during remediation (t-test; P<0.001). Urinary chromium concentrations were not significantly higher in homes with high (75th or 90th percentile) Cr +6 dust levels (concentration or loading) compared with other homes. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationship between Cr +6 levels (concentration and loading) in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations (uncorrected and specific gravity corrected). Contrary to pre-remediation studies, we did not find a positive association between Cr +6 levels in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations. The findings indicate that current Cr +6 levels in house dust are not positively associated with children's chromium exposure as measured by urinary chromium, and the children's exposure to Cr +6 in house dust is below the level that could be identified by urine sampling. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Burger J.,Rutgers University | Burger J.,Center for Environmental Exposure and Disease | Gochfeld M.,Rutgers University | Gochfeld M.,Center for Environmental Exposure and Disease | And 3 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. © 2012 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source

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