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Prado E. Castro C.,Center for Environmental Biology | Prado E. Castro C.,National Institute of Legal Medicine | Sousa J.P.,University of Coimbra | Arnaldos M.I.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France | Year: 2011

The first forensic entomological study performed in Portugal is presented. Two piglet (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were used to determine adult Calliphoridae activity on carrion over a period of 121 days, all along the end of spring and the summer, both in a shaded and a sunny site. Five decomposition stages were observed and a total of 10723 adult Calliphoridae, belonging to 11 species, were collected. Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia caesar were the dominant species in this study. Decomposition was faster on the carcass exposed to the sun and the number of Calliphoridae specimens was higher there than in the shaded site. It was found a significant effect of the decomposition stage in the number of specimens attracted to the carcass, as well as a significant effect of the interaction between the decomposition stage and insolation regime. Calliphora and Lucilia species did not show preference for sunny or shaded areas. Important differences in the Calliphoridae community structure were found compared to other regions of the Iberian Peninsula, reinforcing the need of further studies in different environments and regions of this geographical area in order to collect information about the local necrophagous fauna used in forensic practice. Source


Shibata H.,Hokkaido University | McDowell W.H.,University of New Hampshire | Mitchell M.J.,New York University | Monteith D.T.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | And 10 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2015

Anthropogenically derived nitrogen (N) has a central role in global environmental changes, including climate change, biodiversity loss, air pollution, greenhouse gas emission, water pollution, as well as food production and human health. Current understanding of the biogeochemical processes that govern the N cycle in coupled human–ecological systems around the globe is drawn largely from the long-term ecological monitoring and experimental studies. Here, we review spatial and temporal patterns and trends in reactive N emissions, and the interactions between N and other important elements that dictate their delivery from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems, and the impacts of N on biodiversity and human society. Integrated international and long-term collaborative studies covering research gaps will reduce uncertainties and promote further understanding of the nitrogen cycle in various ecosystems. © 2014, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source


Chuan-Hua W.,China Three Gorges University | Chuan-Hua W.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Lin Y.,China Three Gorges University | Qiao-Ling Y.,China Three Gorges University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

To explore the potential impacts of nitrogen deposition on lichen diversity in Snub-Nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) habitats in Shennongjia, an in-situ experiment was conducted in a forest in Shennongjia Nature Reserve. Four common epiphytic lichens (Usnea longis-sima, Usnea betulina, Ramalina calicaris var. japonica and Parmotrema hypoleucinum) were collected, then soaked in solutions of KNO3, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, or deionized water three times, for half an hour each time at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively; then Fv/Fm, cell integrity (measured as solution electrical conductivity, RE) and chlorophyll OD435/OD4l5were measured after 72 h, which are indexes indicating lichen sensitivity to nitrogen deposition. The results showed that higher nitrogen concentration led to a significant decrease of Fy/Fm and OD435/OD415and a significant increase of RE. Furthermore, species-specific differences in sensitivity were found for different nitrogen types and different indications. Based on the response of Fv/Fm, U. longissima and U. betulina were more sensitive to KNO3than to NH4SO4and NH4NO3, but R. calicaris var. japonica and P. hypoleucinum were more sensitive to (NH4)2SO4than to KNO3and NH4NO3. According to RE response to nitrogen treatment, U. longissim, U. betulina and P. hypoleucinum were most sensitive to (NH4)2SO4, but there was no significant difference among responses of, calicaris var. japonica to KNO3, NH4NO3and (NH4)2SO4. As with OD435/OD415, U. longissim and P. hypoleucinum were more sensitive to (NH4)2SO4than to KNO3and NH4NO3, U. betulina was more sensitive to KNO3and (NH4)2SO4than to NH4NO3, but. calicaris var. japonica was equally sensitive to the three nitrogen types. The results suggested that more attention should be paid to negative effects of nitrate deposition on habitats of Snub-Nosed Monkey at Shennongjia Nature Reserve, and further investigation on effects of nitrogen deposition on lichen biomass accumulation and nutrition components should be conducted to a perfect conservation of Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkey. © 2015, editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved. Source


Sousa J.,Oxford Brookes University | Sousa J.,Center for Environmental Biology | Sousa J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Barata A.V.,Center for Environmental Biology | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Jesus J.,University of Madeira | Jesus J.,Center for Environmental Biology | Teixeira S.,Madeira Fauna and Flora Biology and Conservation | Freitas T.,University of Madeira | And 2 more authors.
Hystrix | Year: 2013

According to the IUCN global Red List, Pipistrellus maderensis is among the most endangered bat species in Europe. Its populations are scattered across some islands of the Atlantic Ocean, particularly Madeira and the Canary archipelagoes. This geographical pattern is likely to result in significant genetic differences between populations which would have important implications to set conservation priorities. To test this hypothesis, we analyze cytochrome b sequences and compared populations from Madeira and the Canary islands. Five sequences from Madeiran individuals were analysed and compared to 30 sequences extracted from GenBank from Pipistrellus maderensis from the Canary islands and Pipistrellus kuhli. Our results indicate a significant divergence between the two groups, smaller than between true species, but higher that intra-group divergence. However, further research on the Madeiran population is needed, including the use of sequences of other mitochondrial markers and nuclear marker and microsatellites. © 2013 Associazione Teriologica Italiana. Source

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