Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research

San Juan, United States

Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research

San Juan, United States
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da Silva A.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva A.R.,Centro Federal Of Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow Da Fonseca Cefet Rj | Aucelio R.Q.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Rodriguez-Cotto R.I.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2014

Cadmium sulfite (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) modified with different stabilizing agents (2-mercaptopropionic acid or 2MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid or 3MPA, and l-cysteine or cys) were designed to be used as luminescent probes. The toxicity and inflammatory response of luminescent CdS NPs (average diameter between 2 and 3 nm) was evaluated “in vitro” using human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Also, mucociliary function changes or injuries were assessed by mucociliary transport (MCT) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) measurements using frog palates. Toxicity assays showed that Cd concentrations above 1.0 mg L−1 were toxic to BEAS-2B, while Cd associated to NPs was not toxic at the concentrations tested (fivefolds that of Cd toxicity). Cadmium at toxic levels of 2.5 mg L−1 significantly induced the release of both cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, conversely none toxic levels (2.5 mg L−1) of 2MPA-CdS nanoparticles showed similar effects. However, cys-CdS and 3MPA-CdS NPs did not induce the secretions of either IL-6 or IL-8 by lung epithelial cells at the same Cd concentration of 2.5 mg L−1. Conversely, significant reduction in the secretion of these two pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed. The MCT and CBF results revealed no impairment on mucociliary behavior except a very slight change in mucus viscosity by 3MPA-CdS NPs. These findings highlight the potential of 3MPA-CdS and cys-CdS NPs for future biomedical research, and encourage further histopathological and metabolic studies in order to strengthen that possibility. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Rodriguez-Cotto R.I.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Rodriguez-Cotto R.I.,Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research | Ortiz-Martinez M.G.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Ortiz-Martinez M.G.,Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez-Cotto R.I.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Rodriguez-Cotto R.I.,Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research | Ortiz-Martinez M.G.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Ortiz-Martinez M.G.,Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The health impact of the global African dust event (ADE) phenomenon in the Caribbean has been vaguely investigated. Heavy metals in ADE and non-ADE extracts were evaluated for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant capacity by cells using, deferoxamine mesylate (DF) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Results show that ADE particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) induces ROS and stimulates oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with DF reduces ROS in ADE and Non-ADE extracts and in lung cells demonstrating that heavy metals are of utmost importance. Glutathione-S-transferase and Heme Oxygenase 1 mRNA levels are induced with ADE PM and reduced by DF and NAC. ADE extracts induced Nrf2 activity and IL-8 mRNA levels significantly more than Non-ADE. NF-κB activity was not detected in any sample. Trace elements and organic constituents in ADE PM2.5 enrich the local environment load, inducing ROS formation and activating antioxidant-signaling pathways increasing pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in lung cells. © 2015.

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