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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Chowdhury E.H.,University of Calgary | Chowdhury E.H.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Hassan Q.K.,University of Calgary
Natural Hazards | Year: 2017

Flooding is one of the natural disasters that affect the livelihood of the people living in the floodplains, like Bangladesh. Here, we proposed to employ SAR satellite images in assessing the flood extent and crop damage with the hydrometeorological observations in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. We observed that the unusual flood of the year 2000 was the combined effect of the huge amount of rainfall in the local areas as well as oncoming water flows from West Bengal in India. During late monsoon of 2000, we experienced that the amount of rainfall was in several magnitudes (250–450%) than the expected over the region. Bangladesh, one of the largest deltas in the world, in general experienced recurrent flood events from the spill of the three mighty rivers in every year. However, we observed that during 2000 the river situation was slightly above the average year conditions and below the moderate level of flood warning conditions, indicating non-riverine flooding. Therefore, we used the SAR images in delineating the flood extent and its damages for the standing aman crops. We observed that the flood extent mapping was having more than 95% agreements with the ground data and crop damage information was about 75% in agreement with the government estimates. The flood extent and crop damage map was found to be useful during the unprecedented flood in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The use of near real-time SAR imageries thus would be helpful in developing strategies for flood management and disaster mitigation activities and could be utilized on a regular basis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hahn M.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Hahn M.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Patz J.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Patz J.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Nipah virus has caused recurring outbreaks in central and northwest Bangladesh (the "Nipah Belt"). Little is known about roosting behavior of the fruit bat reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, or factors driving spillover. We compared human population density and ecological characteristics of case villages and control villages (no reported outbreaks) to understand their role in P. giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk. Nipah Belt villages have a higher human population density (P < 0.0001), and forests that are more fragmented than elsewhere in Bangladesh (0.50 versus 0.32 patches/km2, P < 0.0001). The number of roosts in a village correlates with forest fragmentation (r = 0.22, P = 0.03). Villages with a roost containing Polyalthia longifolia or Bombax ceiba trees were more likely case villages (odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-90.6). This study suggests that, in addition to human population density, composition and structure of the landscape shared by P. giganteus and humans may influence the geographic distribution of Nipah virus spillovers. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Dasgupta S.,The World Bank | Huq M.,Development Policy Group | Khan Z.H.,Institute of Water Modelling | Ahmed M.M.Z.,Institute of Water Modelling | And 3 more authors.
Climate and Development | Year: 2014

This paper integrates information on climate-change, hydrodynamic models, and geographic overlays to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas in Bangladesh to larger storm surges and sea-level rise (SLR) by 2050. The approach identifies polders, coastal populations, settlements, infrastructure, and economic activity at risk of inundation, and estimates the damage from storm surge inundation versus the cost of several adaptation measures. A 27-centimetre SLR and 10% intensification of wind speed resulting from global warming suggest that the vulnerable zone increases in size by 69% given a +3-metre inundation depth, and by 14% given a +1-metre inundation depth. Estimates indicate investments including strengthening polders, foreshore afforestation, additional multi-purpose cyclone shelters, cyclone-resistant private housing, and further strengthening of the early warning and evacuation system would cost more than $2.4 billion, with an annual recurrent cost of more than $50 million. These estimates can serve as a prototype in climate negotiations of the adaptation costs of extreme weather events. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Mainuddin M.,CSIRO | Kirby M.,CSIRO | Chowdhury R.A.R.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Shah-Newaz S.M.,Institute of Water Modeling
Irrigation Science | Year: 2014

Sustaining irrigation is vital for ensuring future food security in the face of population growth and a changing climate in Bangladesh. In this study, a daily soil water balance simulation model was used to estimate the net irrigation requirements of nine crops including Boro rice for the historical period of 1985–2010 and for future climate scenarios of 2030 and 2050 dry and average conditions using the A1B emission scenario. The average net irrigation requirement of Boro rice, the main crop, is 676 mm with temporally averaged spatial variation of 644–779 mm and spatially averaged temporal variation of 570–755 mm for base case planting on clay loam soil. The variations are due to the variation in crop evapotranspiration and rainfall during the cropping period. Changing planting or sowing date affects the net irrigation requirement which for Boro rice is lower in early (October–November) or late planting (January–February). The net irrigation requirement of Boro rice is about twice that required by wheat, maize, potato, tomato and sunflower, three times that of pulses and 5–6 times that required by oilseeds. The impact of climate change on irrigation requirements of Boro rice is small. The average irrigation requirement is projected to increase by a maximum of 3 % for the 2050 dry scenario. For other crops this is projected to increase by 1–5 % depending on the crop and the time of sowing/planting. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ruane A.C.,NASA | Major D.C.,Columbia University | Yu W.H.,The World Bank | Alam M.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | And 8 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21 Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario. © 2012.

Ahmad M.-U.D.,CSIRO | Kirby M.,CSIRO | Islam M.S.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Hossain M.J.,Institute of Water Modelling | Islam M.M.,Institute of Water Modelling
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

Bangladesh has a large and growing population that will demand more food and place greater pressure on resources. Dry season irrigated Boro rice production is important for national food security. Dry season irrigation mainly uses groundwater, but the extent of its use is not well known. We assessed groundwater use and water productivity of Boro in the northwest region of Bangladesh using remote sensing based energy balance modelling, crop classification and secondary statistics. The energy balance modelling shows a large spatial variation in the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from about 325 to 470 mm, with an overall spatial average of 365 mm during dry season. The estimated values of ETa correspond well with independent values from field and regional scale soil and water balance modelling results. From spatial estimates of ETa and effective rainfall, we computed regional net groundwater use for Boro production in 2009 as 2.4 km3. Groundwater is being used unsustainably in some areas, and a spatial time series (1990 to 2010) of pre- and post-monsoon groundwater depth changes in the northwest region of Bangladesh suggests that, with the current level of groundwater use, falling groundwater levels may pose a long term threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in much of the region. Boro water productivity varies from 0.95 to 1.35 kg/m3, allowing the identification of high performing "bright" and low performing "hot" spots and the development of strategies to reduce crop yield/productivity gaps and ensure future food security. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Syed E.H.,University of Tokyo | Mutahara M.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Rahman M.,University of Rajshahi
Home Health Care Management and Practice | Year: 2012

This study reviews the current situation of medical waste management (MWM) and practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and examines possible solutions for further study. We collected existing information through an Internet survey using the keywords "Medical Waste Management," "Health Hazards," and "Bangladesh." Medical wastes that are disposed in open places in the city are hazardous and toxics. Moreover, waste management and practices were found to be quite unsafe. Poor people collect the waste and sell it for recycling. Almost 85.0% of sharp injuries are caused between their usage and subsequent disposal. More than 20.0% of those who handle them encounter "stick" injuries. Another study showed that people use an average of 3.4 injections per year, in which 39.3% were administered with reused equipment for low level of management. There is no initiative for present MWM system by government or INGOs, and no concrete regulation has been established yet. Few researchers and INGOs have done little. Women and children are more vulnerable because they handle the waste with bare hands; exposing them to contamination with HIV or hepatitis B and other diseases. Therefore, it is essential to follow sound medical waste management system and take actions for this public health problem. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

Mondal M.S.,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology | Chowdhury J.U.,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology | Ferdous M.R.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

A risk-based evaluation is performed for meeting future water demands in the Brahmaputra Floodplain Area within Bangladesh (BFA). This evaluation is carried out using three risk-based performance indicators: reliability, resiliency and vulnerability. The vulnerability indicator has been redefined incorporating the aspect of a supply failure. The analysis includes the impacts of climate change on both water demands and resources, and the generation of synthetic flows of the Brahmaputra River using time series models. The simulated values of the indicators reveal that the expected demand of the BFA up to the year 2050 can be supplied with the proposed Brahmaputra Barrage inside Bangladesh under the 'no change' in climatic condition, provided that the groundwater remains usable. However, if groundwater becomes unusable due to widespread arsenic contamination and/or a climate change occurs, it would not be possible to meet the future water demand of the region with high reliability, moderate resiliency and low vulnerability. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sarker M.H.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Thorne C.R.,University of Nottingham | Aktar M.N.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Ferdous M.R.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services
Geomorphology | Year: 2014

The Jamuna River is the downstream continuation of the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. It is one of the largest sand-bed braided rivers in the world and every year it erodes thousand hectares of mainland floodplain, rendering tens of thousands of people landless and/or homeless. Understanding the morpho-dynamics of this river and its responses to the various drivers of morphological change that act on it is essential to improving the livelihoods of millions of floodplain dwellers in Bangladesh, especially given the threats posed by climate change. Reliable data, information and knowledge of river process are sparse and so progress in linking the impacts of multiple drivers (including neo-tectonics, earthquakes, large-scale avulsions and engineering interventions) to complex morphological responses depends on making best use of historical maps, time-series satellite images, hydro-morphological data, expert judgment and local knowledge. This paper draws on all these sources to chronicle the morphological evolution of the Jamuna River since the avulsion that created it about 200. years ago, and to establish temporal trends and spatial patterns in the changes that have characterized process-response mechanisms in this fluvial system since then. The understanding gained from these investigations then supports deeper analyses to: explain how historical migration of the river westward has produced significant contrasts between left and right (west) bank material properties; elucidate the relationships between discharge, fluvial processes, anabranch instability and floodplain erosion rates, and; identify causal links between drivers and morphological responses at a variety of time and space scales. Finally, the new knowledge generated by the analyses developed herein are combined with existing, conceptual and empirical process-response models for the Jamuna to predict possible future morphological adjustments in ways helpful in identifying appropriate strategies for climate change adaptation in Bangladesh. The enhanced knowledge gained from these historical and contemporary investigations may also be useful in assessing the impacts of natural and anthropogenic drivers on other large, braided rivers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mount N.J.,University of Nottingham | Tate N.J.,University of Leicester | Sarker M.H.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Thorne C.R.,University of Nottingham
Geomorphology | Year: 2013

In this study continuous wavelet transforms are used to explore spatio-temporal patterns of multi-scale bank line retreat along a 204. km reach of the Jamuna River, Bangladesh. A sequence of eight bank line retreat series, derived from remotely-sensed imagery for the period 1987-1999, is transformed using the Morlet mother wavelet. Bank erosion is shown to operate at several characteristic spatial and temporal scales. Local erosion and bank line retreat are shown to occur in short, well defined reaches characterized by temporal persistence at the same location, and separated by relatively stable reaches. In contrast, evidence of downstream propagation of bank line retreat patterns is evident at larger spatial scales. The intensity of localised bank line retreat (i.e. at scales of 0-20. km) is strongly related to the magnitude of monsoonal peak discharge, but this relationship weakens as the spatial scale of erosion increases. The potential of continuous wavelet analysis for enhancing our understanding of morphological evolution in complex fluvial systems with multi-channel planforms is discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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