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Nath C.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Das T.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rana K.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pathak H.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

In this study, a possible weed management has been envisaged in zero-till (ZT) and conventional till (CT) wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] with and without residue during 2013–14 and 2014–15 using residue, N and weed-control treatments. It was observed that ZT with 5 t/ha maize (Zea mays L.) residue retention (ZT + R) + 75% N + rest N-based on GreenSeeker (GS) caused a considerable reduction in the population of nar-row-leaf, broad-leaf and total weeds compared to CT and ZT without residue. Pendimethalin (PMT) followed by sulfosulfuron (SSF) application significantly reduced the weeds population and dry weight than the unweeded control (UWC). Wheat yield attributes were higher in ZT with residue retention (ZT + R) than conventional-tilled treatments. Application of PMT @1 kg/ha followed by SSF 25 g/ha combined with ZT with 5 t/ha maize residue retention (ZT + R) + 75% N + rest N based on GreenSeeker (GS) resulting in higher wheat yield which was comparable with that in weed-free check (WFC). Zero tillage with or without residue reduced the nutrient uptake by weeds than the conventional tillage which led to the higher uptake of nutrients by crop in zero tillage condition over the years. The sum total amount of N, P and K removed by the crop was higher in ZT + R + 75% N + rest N based on GreenSeeker (GS) than CT-R + 100% N (farmer practice) to the tune of 23.8% and 34.6% in 2013–14 and 2014– 15, respectively. The sequential application PMT and SSF had an edge over the ready-mix application of SSF+ metsulfuron methyl (MSM) in respect of nutrients uptake by crop which was due to the reduction in nutrients uptake by weeds by the former than the later. The treatment combination ZT + R + 75% N + rest N based on GreenSeeker (GS) and sequential application of PMT-SSF secured highest output energy than the CT–R + 100% N with UWC and ready-mix application of SSF + MSM. The interaction between tillage, residue and N management with weed control practices for net benefit: cost ratio revealed that irrespective of residue the zero tillage fetched the higher net benefit: cost than conventional tillage. The partial cost-benefit of sequential as well as ready-mix application of herbicide was on a par under both the tillage condition. Therefore, ZT + R + 75% N + rest N based on GreenSeeker (GS) and sequential application of PMT-SSF can be recommended for wheat production in north-western Indo-Gangetic plains of India. © 2015, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.


Singh S.D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chakrabarti B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Muralikrishna K.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chaturvedi A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Field experiment was carried out to study the yield responses of important field crops to elevated air temperature and CO2 fertilization at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi. One promising variety each of rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), greengram (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were grown to full maturity in small temperature tunnels and FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) under increased temperature (1 - 4°C) and CO 2 level (550 ppm), respectively. Economic yield reduced gradually with rise in temperature in all the crops. Among the crops rice, chickpea and mustard have shown greater thermal tolerance, while wheat and groundnut proved to be more thermal sensitive. In case of greengram and potato, increased temperature effect was intermediate. On the other hand CO2 fertilization enhanced the yield to varying degree in these field crops with highest effect in chickpea and least in cereals (rice and wheat). Results indicate that elevated CO2 could alleviate the negative impact of temperature increase up to 4°C in chickpea and 5°C in mustard. In other crops, elevated CO2 could counter-effect the temperature increase to lesser extent with least degree in wheat (1.5°C). Thus, counter effect of elevated CO2 to rising temperature seems to be crop and location specific. Although, these results are preliminary in nature as experiments with more variables such as biotic factors like pests and weeds, geographical locations, agronomical practices are needed to find precise responses of crops to future climate change scenario.


Sharma D.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma D.K.,Center for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture | Rana D.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Sole jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and intercropped system with baby corn (Zea mays L.) were evaluated for productivity, nutrient cycling, and economical viability under four levels of nitrogen at New Delhi, during 2007-09. Baby corn as intercrop under the 3-4 years old jatropha canopy received 65-70% of solar radiation during its growth period from February to April. Three rows of baby corn between the two rows of Jatropha interspaced at 3.0 m, recorded 819 and 765 kg baby corn yield/ha during 2007 and 2008. Sole and intercropped baby corn responded up to 80 kg N/ha. Sole jatropha recorded significantly higher seed yield (2.48 Mg/ha) than intercropped stand (2.23 Mg/ ha). Jatropha responded up to 40 kg N/ha in sole and 80 kg N/ha in intercropped stand. Based on two years mean, intercropped stand recorded an increase of 135% in productivity and 54% in land equivalent ratio as compared to sole Jatropha. Weed population and dry weight were found significantly low in intercropped stand. Jatropha produced 6 Mg/ha/year litter, which recycled 44.0 kg N, 7.4 kg P and 38.4 kg K/ha/year. At the termination of experiment, soil organic C in 0-15 cm soil depth in sole Jatropha (0.48%) and Jatropha + baby corn (0.49%) was found higher over the initial value (0.43). Conspicuous reduction in soil pH (7.4) and soil bulk density (1.46) were recorded compared to initial values (7.8 and 1.50). Water holding capacity of soil also recorded improvement over initial values.


Singh A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar S.,Janta Vadic College | Singh Y.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted during 2 kharif and rabi seasons during 2006-08 with rice (Oryza sativa L.)- wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] cropping system at New Delhi. The main plots comprised 2 tillage treatments, viz. puddled and non-puddled in rice and with tillage and no-tillage in wheat. The subplots included 7 fertilizer treatments including recommended doses of urea (120 kg N/ha), urea + farmyard manure (FYM), urea + green manure (GM), urea + municipal solid waste (MSW) compost. Yields of rice and wheat were higher under puddled/conventional tilled condition compared to non-puddled/no-tillage conditions. Application of organic matter with recommended dose of mineral fertilizer gave the highest grain and straw yields compared to other treatments. The carbon sequestration potential was 0.146, 1.31, 1.165, 1.238, 0.728, 1.019 and 0.874 tonne C/ha under 120 kg N, 120 kg N + 6 tonnes FYM, 60 kg N + 6 tonnes FYM, 120 kg N+ 3 tonnes GM, 60 kg N + 3 tonnes GM, 120 kg N + 60 kg N (MSW compost) and 120 kg N + 60 kg N (MSW compost) treatments respectively, under puddle/tilled rice-wheat cropping system. However, under non-puddled/no-tilled crops carbon sequestration potential were 0.291, 1.601, 1.456, 1.529, 1.019, 1.31 and 1.048 tonnes C/ha under treatment having 120 kg N, 120 kg N + 6 tonnes FYM, 60 kg N + 6 tonnes FYM, 120 kg N+ 3 tonnes GM, 60 kg N + 3 tonnes GM, 120 kg N + 60 kg N (MSW compost) and 120 kg N + 60 kg N (MSW compost) respectively. The addition of organic manures resulted in sequestration of carbon in rice-wheat cropping system. The carbon sequestration increased under reduced tillage conditions of soil. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.


Prasad S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,Center for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture | Muralikrishna K.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Muralikrishna K.S.,Center for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper reviews the situation of biofuels production with regard to climate change and sustainability. The biomass energy or biofuels combustion is carbon neutral or even carbon negative as the carbon, which is stored during its growth, is released and does not add new carbon to the active carbon cycle, whereas fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas remove carbon from geologic storage and contribute to climate change by emission of GHGs. Biofuel also controls the carbon emissions from biomass facilities which would have been released back into the atmosphere through natural decay or disposal through open-burning. Inspite of these GHG benefits, the progress in biofuels expansion is at crossroads as it is influenced by various factors like land use changes and food security related issues. However biofuels from degraded land and from non-food crops are promising and will help in climate change mitigation. Proper planning in land use and identifying most appropriate policies for promoting this will help in tackling the global issue and in achieving the goal. The technology utilizing carbon sequestered in various sources, for ethanol, biodiesel and other biofuels production is a sustainable solution to climate change rather than biofuels from food crops.

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