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Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam

Tuyet-Hanh T.T.,Queensland University of Technology | Minh N.H.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2015

Background: Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots. Objectives: This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases. Methods: This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed. Results: Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8. pg. TEQ/g to 95. pg. TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03. pg. TEQ/g to 6.1. pg. TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day to 6.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day to 4.3. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day in Da Nang). Conclusions: Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Minh N.H.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | Toms L.-M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots.OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases.METHODS: This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed.RESULTS: Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8 pg TEQ/g to 95 pg TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03 pg TEQ/g to 6.1 pg TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 6.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 4.3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Da Nang).CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source


Hue N.T.M.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Nam V.D.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Thuong N.V.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Huyen N.T.,Center for Environment Monitoring | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5. years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26. pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51. pg. TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134. pg. TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day). © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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