Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico
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Garcia-Huerta J.-M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Jimenez-Hernandez H.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Herrera-Navarro A.-M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Hernandez-Diaz T.,CIDETEQ | Terol-Villalobos I.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar. © 2014 SPIE.


Hernandez-Diaz T.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Garcia-Huerta J.-M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Vazquez-Cervantes A.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Jimenez-Hernandez H.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Herrera-Navarro A.-M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper presents a proposal to manage simple-objects interaction in video surveillance system. The proposal consists on locating a set of features in each video frame. Maxima regions from the second Eigen- value of the tensor matrix are used as features. Afterwards, statics features are discarded (labeling as background) and dynamic features are used to represent objects in motion (foreground). Dynamics features are dynamically clustered with k-neighborhood and EM algorithm. The centroid of each cluster locally represents motion objects, and its displacement through time is denoted by displacement of cumulus over several frames. The behavior of cumulus in time help us to model simple object interactions. These primitives can be used in addition to a causal dependencies across time; i.e. cluster division, cluster fusion and cluster motion with respect to the others, offer information of local dynamics which is referred to local interactions. And based on causal dependencies theory, a graph dependence of local centroids behavior can be built. This graph can represent the local interaction model. In experimental section, the approach is tested in several scenarios, extracting simple interaction objects in controlled/not-controlled scenarios. © 2015 SPIE-IS&T.


Oliveira T.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Estrada A.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Fridman L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems | Year: 2016

In this paper, an output-feedback version of the Variable Gain Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control is proposed for uncertain plants with arbitrary relative degree. This extension is achieved by using global HOSM (higher-order sliding modes) differentiators with dynamic gains. Norm observers for the unmeasured state are employed to dominate the disturbances as well as to adapt the gains of the proposed differentiator, since the disturbances may be state-dependent and time-varying. The proposed control scheme guarantees global stability with robust exact tracking. As the control signal is continuous the proposed scheme alleviates the chattering phenomenon. Numerical simulations illustrate the theoretical results. © 2016 IEEE.


Bandala M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Salgado T.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Chavez R.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
Industrial Robot | Year: 2014

Purpose - This paper presents the results of a heading estimation method for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The output rate of commercially available underwater compasses is typically in the order of a few Hz. Heading frequencies of at least 1 KHz are desirable for navigation and control purposes. Design/methodology/approach - The estimation was performed by fusioning the signals of three inertial sensors: the ROV's own underwater compass (which operates roughly at 10 Hz or less), the ROV's embedded gyro and an additional angular rate sensor that provides readings from 1 to 3 KHz. The output signal of the additional angular rate sensor is not part of the proposed Kalman filter. Nonetheless a five-point Newton-Cotes closed integration of such signal is fed into the Kalman filter implementation that performs the required heading estimation at 1 KHz or more. Findings - The proposed Kalman filter implementation is a suitable approach to estimate heading position even though the original compass signal rate is significantly slower than the signal required for both assisted and autonomous control. Research limitations/ implications - The estimated heading yield good results in both simulation and experimental environments. Originality/value - The method was embedded in a dedicated 16-bit DSP that handles both the acquisition of the three signals and the heading estimation, hence resulting in a very low-cost solution. The embedded solution was tested in the developed submarine and the obtained high-rate heading parameter is now used by the control system of the ROV. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Chavez-Bracamontes R.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Gurrola-Navarro M.A.,University of Guadalajara | Jimenez-Flores H.J.,Monterrey Institute of Technology | Bandala-Sanchez M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
IEICE Electronics Express | Year: 2016

This paper presents a parametrized VLSI architecture for an nstate Kalman filter implementation intended for real-time applications that typically require a sensing rate not far from 300 samples per second. The architecture has been optimized in silicon area and power consumption. This approach has been proved with a fabricated chip using a 0.5μm CMOS technology. The fabricated integrated circuit executes a two-state Kalman filter employing 70K transistors. For a performance of 50 filter iterations/second, the chip requires a clock frequency of 200 KHz where a negligible power consumption of 1.1mWis observed. This performance can be increased up to 176,991 iterations/second at a clock frequency of 20 MHz. © 2016, Institute of Electronics Information Communication Engineers. All rights reserved.


Cotera P.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Velazquez M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Cruz D.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Medina L.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Bandala M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems | Year: 2016

This paper presents algorithms implemented for positioning a wheeled robot on a production floor inside a factory by means of radio-frequency distance measurement and trilateration techniques. A set of radio-frequency transceivers located on the columns of the factory (anchors) create a grid with several triangular zones capable of measuring the line-of-sight distance between each anchor and the transceiver installed in the wheeled robot. After measuring only three of these distances (radii), an enhanced trilateration algorithm is applied to obtain X and Y coordinates in a Cartesian plane, i.e., the position of the robot on the factory floor. The embedded systems developed for the anchors and the robot are robust enough to establish communication, select the closest anchors for measuring radii, and identify in which of the grid zones the robot is located. © 2016 Author(s).


Garcia-Moreno S.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Bandala-Sanchez M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
Electronics Letters | Year: 2013

A model for the fringing field in sections of circular parallel plates is derived using potential-theoretic methods. The calculation accurately predicts fringing effects when the overlapping area is varied by one plate being slided on top of one another. This capacitance calculation can be useful to estimate torque in several micromotor configurations. © 2013 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Serna M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Garcia-Valdovinos L.G.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Salgado-Jimenez T.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Bandala-Sanchez M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development
OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE Washington | Year: 2015

This paper describes the platform for a bilateral teleoperation where the master is a haptic device and the slave is a commercial small-sized underwater vehicle. The submarine will be instrumented, so that the electronics architecture can be upgrade at any time. With this new architecture it will be possible to program any advanced control scheme an the embedded. Also, position and velocity commands from the haptic interface to the small-sized underwater vehicle, will be send. Such that, when the force sensor, placed in the nose of the underwater vehicle, interacts with the environment, it will measure the force at the slave site and feed back it to the master robot. © 2015 MTS.


Bandala M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Joyce M.J.,Lancaster University
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences | Year: 2013

This paper describes the breathing phantom built to test a six-degree-of freedom sensing device designed for use in Respiratory- Gated Radiotherapy (RGRT). It is focussed on the construction of a test bed that was designed to address tumour motion issues while, at the same time, behaving in much the same way as the human tissues when irradiated. The phantom can produce respiratory movement in three dimensions. Shift differences between the motion axes can be introduced. The position error in the worst case scenario is not greater that 0.4 mm. Emphasis is made on the technical limitations of current sensing technologies, especially with regard to acceleration sensitivity. This study demonstrates that the sensitivity of accelerometers used to sense tumour motion should be 0.05mG or less. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.


Bandala M.,Center for Engineering and Industrial Development | Joyce M.J.,Lancaster University
IEICE Electronics Express | Year: 2012

The results of photon radiation testing of various microcontroller devices are described. This testing was useful to select the microcontroller in a 6DOF MEMS-based INS. This system is being developed for the in-vivo monitoring of tumour position during clinical radiotherapy treatments. This application requires a radiation-tolerant processor in order to perform appropriately in a radiotherapy environment. A phantom has been built to replicate the working conditions that the microcontroller devices are required to endure. Each time, a number of identical microcontrollers have been exposed, in turn, to X-ray doses in excess of 50 Gy from a clinical radiotherapy LINAC. © IEICE 2012.

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