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Nonhebel S.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Kastner T.,Center for Energy and Environmental science
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Population growth and increased welfare are not only important drivers for meat consumption, they also affect energy consumption. In the past energy supply and food supply hardly interfered with one another, but through the increasing use of biomass as an energy source both systems become intertwined. This paper addresses developments in the demand for food, livestock feed and energy. We first analyze historical trends and then develop a simple model for assessing global biomass needs in the near future. We distinguish between developing countries, transition countries and developed countries. While the first group of countries will mainly need extra food for their growing population, the second group will mainly require extra animal feed, since increased average income levels lead to higher demand for animal products. Many developed countries will need additional biomass to meet their clean energy targets, aimed at reducing CO2 emissions of energy use. Our analysis shows that the future extra needs for biomass as fuel are in the same order of magnitude as the needs for food and feed (around 1000. MT each). This huge demand for biomass from the energy system is likely to cause large instabilities in the global agricultural markets. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kauw M.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Benders R.M.J.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Visser C.,Center for Energy and Environmental science
Energy | Year: 2015

The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to provide the energy needed for the green methanol production. Iceland has a large potential for such renewable energy sources. If only geothermal CO2 may be utilized the green methanol potential in Iceland is ~340 million L/y. When all the potentially available geothermal energy and hydropower is combined the potential becomes ~2150 million L/y.Next the scope is broadened to the European mainland using Germany as a case since its government has set strict goals for renewable electricity production. For Germany the electricity oversupply in 2050 is predicted to be 24 TWhe/y, leading to a methanol potential of ~2360 million L/y using CO2 from fossil fuel power plants.In Iceland the potential of 340 million L/y of methanol as a transport fuel would supply all of the M3 demand and 75% of the M85 demand. In Germany the electricity oversupply would provide all of the M3 demand, but only 4% of the M85 demand. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kukobat R.,Shinshu University | Kukobat R.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Minami D.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Hayashi T.,Shinshu University | And 6 more authors.
Carbon | Year: 2015

We report a bimetallic Zn/Al complex as an efficient inorganic dispersant for SWCNT, synthesized from Zn(CH3COO)2 and Al(NO3)3. The Zn/Al complex shows more than four times greater efficiency at dispersing SWCNT than widely used surfactants (CTAB and SDS). Besides remarkable dispersibility, the Zn/Al complex does not foam upon any shaking treatment and it can be used just after quick dissolution of the powdered form, which is a marked advantage over surfactants. The Zn/Al complex, containing amorphous Al(CH3COO)3 and a complex of Zn2+ and NO3- ions, should have a unique dispersion mechanism, differing from the surfactants. Al(CH3COO)3 has higher affinity for SWCNT than ions, adsorbing onto its surface in the first layer and attracting Zn2+ and NO3- ions. Charge transfer interactions between the Zn/Al complex and SWCNT, as evidenced by optical absorption spectroscopy, should induce a charge on SWCNT; the zeta potential of such coated SWCNT was +55 mV, indicating a high dispersion stability in aqueous media. Hence, the Zn/Al complex can widen the applications of SWCNT to various technologies such as the transparent and conductive films, as well as high performance composite polymers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Khoerunnisa F.,Indonesia University of Education | Morelos-Gomez A.,Shinshu University | Tanaka H.,Kyoto University | Fujimori T.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | And 10 more authors.
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2014

Naphthalene (N) or naphthalene-derivative (ND) adsorption-treatment evidently varies the electrical conductivity of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles over a wide temperature range due to a charge-transfer interaction. The adsorption treatment of SWCNTs with dinitronaphthalene molecules enhances the electrical conductivity of the SWCNT bundles by 50 times. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of N- or ND-adsorbed SWCNT bundles having a superlattice structure suggests metal-semiconductor transition like behavior near 260 K. The ND-adsorbed SWCNT gives a maximum in the logarithm of electrical conductivity vs. T-1 plot, which may occur after the change to a metallic state and be associated with a partial unravelling of the SWCNT bundle due to an evoked librational motion of the moieties of ND with elevation of the temperature. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Kukobat R.,Shinshu University | Kukobat R.,Center for Energy and Environmental science | Hayashi T.,Shinshu University | Matsuda T.,Technical Center | And 4 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2016

Newly developed inorganic single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inks of the Zn/Al complex and colloidal silica give a quite homogeneous SWCNT film on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by the bar-coating method, whereas the surfactant-based SWCNT inks of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) cannot give a homogeneous film. The key properties of SWCNT inks were studied for the production of homogeneous SWCNT films. The contact angle and surface tension of the inorganic dispersant-based SWCNT inks were 70° and 72 mN m-1, respectively, being close to those of water (71.5° and 71 mN m-1). The viscosity was significantly higher than that of water (0.90 mPa·s), consequently, providing sufficient wettability, spreadability, and slow drying of the ink on the substrate, leading to homogeneous film formation. On the other hand, the surfactant dispersant-aided SWCNT inks have the contact angle and surface tension twice lower than the inorganic dispersant-based SWCNT inks, guaranteeing better wettability and spreadability than the inorganic dispersant-based inks. However, the small viscosity close to that of water induces a heterogeneous flow of SWCNT ink on rapid drying, leading to inhomogeneous film formation. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

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