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Toledo R.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Qin Y.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Cheng Z.-M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Gao Q.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are genetically heterogeneous tumors of neural crest origin, but the molecular basis of most PPGLs is unknown. Experimental Design: We performed exome or transcriptome sequencing of 43 samples from 41 patients. A validation set of 136 PPGLs was used for amplicon-specific resequencing. In addition, a subset of these tumors was subjected to microarray-based transcription, protein expression, and histone methylation analysis by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. In vitro analysis of mutants was performed in cell lines. Results: We detected mutations in chromatin-remodeling genes, including histone-methyltransferases, histone-demethylases, and histones in 11 samples from 8 patients (20%). In particular, we characterized a new cancer syndrome involving PPGLs and giant cell tumors of bone (GCT) caused by a postzygotic G34W mutation of the histone 3.3 gene, H3F3A. Furthermore, mutations in kinase genes were detected in samples from 15 patients (37%). Among those, a novel germline kinase domain mutation of MERTK detected in a patient with PPGL and medullary thyroid carcinoma was found to activate signaling downstream of this receptor. Recurrent germline and somatic mutations were also detected in MET, including a familial case and sporadic PPGLs. Importantly, in each of these three genes, mutations were also detected in the validation group. In addition, a somatic oncogenic hotspot FGFR1 mutation was found in a sporadic tumor. Conclusions: This study implicates chromatin-remodeling and kinase variants as frequent genetic events in PPGLs, many of which have no other known germline driver mutation. MERTK, MET, and H3F3A emerge as novel PPGL susceptibility genes. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

Bausch B.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Wellner U.,University of Lubeck | Bausch D.,University of Lubeck | Schiavi F.,University of Padua | And 23 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2014

A third of patients with paraganglial tumors, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma, carry germline mutations in one of the susceptibility genes, RET, VHL, NF1, SDHAF2, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM127, and MAX. Despite increasing importance, data for long-term prognosis are scarce in pediatric presentations. The European-American-Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma-Registry, with a total of 2001 patients with confirmed paraganglial tumors, was the platform for this study. Molecular genetic and phenotypic classification and assessment of gene-specific long-term outcome with second and/or malignant paraganglial tumors and life expectancy were performed in patients diagnosed at <18 years. Of 177 eligible registrants, 80% had mutations, 49% VHL, 15% SDHB, 10% SDHD, 4%NF1, and one patient each in RET, SDHA, and SDHC. A second primary paraganglial tumor developed in 38% with increasing frequency over time, reaching 50% at 30 years after initial diagnosis. Their prevalence was associated with hereditary disease (P=0.001), particularly in VHL and SDHD mutation carriers (VHL vs others, P=0.001 and SDHD vs others, P=0.042). A total of 16 (9%) patients with hereditary disease had malignant tumors, ten at initial diagnosis and another six during follow-up. The highest prevalence was associated with SDHB (SDHB vs others, P<0.001). Eight patients died (5%), all of whom had germline mutations. Mean life expectancy was 62 years with hereditary disease. Hereditary disease and the underlying germline mutation define the long-term prognosis of pediatric patients in terms of prevalence and time of second primaries, malignant transformation, and survival. Based on these data, gene-adjusted, specific surveillance guidelines can help effective preventive medicine. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

Gerez J.,CONICET | Gerez J.,University of Buenos Aires | Tedesco L.,CONICET | Bonfiglio J.J.,CONICET | And 12 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Somatic mutations or loss of von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) happen in the majority of VHL disease tumors, which present a constitutively active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), essential for tumor growth. Recently described mechanisms for pVHL modulation shed light on the open question of the HIF/pVHL pathway regulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which RSUME stabilizes HIFs, by studying RSUME effect on pVHL function and to determine the role of RSUME on pVHL-related tumor progression. We determined that RSUME sumoylates and physically interacts with pVHL and negatively regulates the assembly of the complex between pVHL, Elongins and Cullins (ECV), inhibiting HIF-1 and 2α ubiquitination and degradation. We found that RSUME is expressed in human VHL tumors (renal clear-cell carcinoma (RCC), pheochromocytoma and hemangioblastoma) and by overexpressing or silencing RSUME in a pVHL-HIF-oxygen-dependent degradation stability reporter assay, we determined that RSUME is necessary for the loss of function of type 2 pVHL mutants. The functional RSUME/pVHL interaction in VHL-related tumor progression was further confirmed using a xenograft assay in nude mice. RCC clones, in which RSUME was knocked down and express either pVHL wt or type 2 mutation, have an impaired tumor growth, as well as HIF-2α, vascular endothelial growth factor A and tumor vascularization diminution. This work shows a novel mechanism for VHL tumor progression and presents a new mechanism and factor for targeting tumor-related pathologies with pVHL/HIF altered function. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Barontini M.,Center for Endocrinological Investigations | Dahia P.L.M.,Cancer Therapy and Research Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) disease increases susceptibility to several malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma, haemangioblastomas of the central nervous system or retina and phaeochromocytomas. The VHL tumour suppressor gene, responsible for the disease, encodes for a major regulator of the hypoxic response by targeting the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) for degradation. In this review, we present a synopsis of clinical features of the disease and emphasise unique aspects of VHL syndrome in the paediatric population. Genotype-phenotype associations based on the risk of phaeochromocytoma have pointed to the existence of additional, HIF-independent functions of VHL that remain underexplored. We also examine the progress on these pleiotropic roles of VHL, which contribute to explain clinical features of VHL disease. These advances have important translational implications and are likely to offer a new host of therapeutic options to individuals affected by the disease in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Castinetti F.,Aix - Marseille University | Qi X.-P.,Anhui Medical University | Walz M.K.,Kliniken Essen Mitte | Maia A.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 55 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: The prevention of medullary thyroid cancer in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome has demonstrated the ability of molecular diagnosis and prophylactic surgery to improve patient outcomes. However, the other major neoplasia associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, phaeochromocytoma, is not as well characterised in terms of occurrence and treatment outcomes. In this study, we aimed to systematically characterise the outcomes of management of phaeochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Methods: This multinational observational retrospective population-based study compiled data on patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 from 30 academic medical centres across Europe, the Americas, and Asia. Patients were included if they were carriers of germline pathogenic mutations of the RET gene, or were first-degree relatives with histologically proven medullary thyroid cancer and phaeochromocytoma. We gathered clinical information about patients' RET genotype, type of treatment for phaeochromocytoma (ie, unilateral or bilateral operations as adrenalectomy or adrenal-sparing surgery, and as open or endoscopic operations), and postoperative outcomes (adrenal function, malignancy, and death). The type of surgery was decided by each investigator and the timing of surgery was patient driven. The primary aim of our analysis was to compare disease-free survival after either adrenal-sparing surgery or adrenalectomy. Findings: 1210 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 were included in our database, 563 of whom had phaeochromocytoma. Treatment was adrenalectomy in 438 (79%) of 552 operated patients, and adrenal-sparing surgery in 114 (21%). Phaeochromocytoma recurrence occurred in four (3%) of 153 of the operated glands after adrenal-sparing surgery after 6-13 years, compared with 11 (2%) of 717 glands operated by adrenalectomy (p=0·57). Postoperative adrenal insufficiency or steroid dependency developed in 292 (86%) of 339 patients with bilateral phaeochromocytoma who underwent surgery. However, 47 (57%) of 82 patients with bilateral phaeochromocytoma who underwent adrenal-sparing surgery did not become steroid dependent. Interpretation: The treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-related phaeochromocytoma continues to rely on adrenalectomies with their associated Addisonian-like complications and consequent lifelong dependency on steroids. Adrenal-sparing surgery, a highly successful treatment option in experienced centres, should be the surgical approach of choice to reduce these complications. Funding: European Union, German Cancer Foundation, Arthur Blank Foundation, Italian Government, Charles University, Czech Ministry of Health, Nanjing Military Command, National Science Centre Poland, National Research Council for Scientific and Technological Development, and State of São Paulo Research Foundation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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