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Caron P.J.,Center Hospitalier University Larrey | Bevan J.S.,Royal Infirmary | Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Flanagan D.,Derriford Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Methodological shortcomings often compromise investigations into the effects of primary somatostatin-analog treatment on tumor size in acromegaly. There are also limited data for the long-acting lanreotide formulation. Objective: The aim of the study was to better characterize the effects of primary lanreotide Autogel treatment on tumor size in patients with GH-secreting macroadenomas. Design: PRIMARYS was a 48-week, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study. Setting: The study was conducted at specialist endocrine centers. Patients: Treatment-nave acromegalic patients with GH-secretingmacroadenomas participated in the study. Intervention: Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg was administered sc every 28 days (without dose titration). Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with clinically significant (20%) tumor volume reduction (TVR) at week 48/last post-baseline value available using central assessments from three readers. The null hypothesis (H0 ) for the primary endpoint was that the proportion with TVRwas-55%. Secondary endpointsincluded: TVR at other time points, GH andIGF-1, acromegalic symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Results: Sixty-four of 90 (71.1%) patients completed the study. Clinically significant TVR at 48 weeks/last post-baseline value available was achieved by 62.9% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 72.9) of 89 patients in the primary analysis (intention-to-treat population; H0 not rejected) and 71.9 -75.3% in sensitivity (n89) and secondary analyses (n63) (H0 rejected). At 12 weeks, 54.1% had clinically significant TVR. Early and sustained improvements also occurred in GH and IGF-1, acromegalic symptoms, and QoL. No patients withdrew due to gastrointestinal intolerance. Conclusions: Primary treatment with lanreotide Autogel, administered at 120 mg (highest available dose) without dose titration, in patients with GH-secreting macroadenomas provides early and sustained reductions in tumor volume, GH and IGF-1, and acromegalic symptoms, and improves QoL. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Colao A.,University of Naples Federico II | Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Petersenn S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Newell-Price J.,University of Sheffield | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pasireotide, a potential therapy, has a unique, broad somatostatin-receptor-binding profile, with high binding affinity for somatostatin-receptor subtype 5. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 162 adults with Cushing's disease and a urinary free cortisol level of at least 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range to receive subcutaneous pasireotide at a dose of 600 μg (82 patients) or 900 μg (80 patients) twice daily. Patients with urinary free cortisol not exceeding 2 times the upper limit of the normal range and not exceeding the baseline level at month 3 continued to receive their randomly assigned dose; all others received an additional 300 μg twice daily. The primary end point was a urinary free cortisol level at or below the upper limit of the normal range at month 6 without an increased dose. Open-label treatment continued through month 12. RESULTS: Twelve of the 82 patients in the 600-μg group and 21 of the 80 patients in the 900-μg group met the primary end point. The median urinary free cortisol level decreased by approximately 50% by month 2 and remained stable in both groups. A normal urinary free cortisol level was achieved more frequently in patients with baseline levels not exceeding 5 times the upper limit of the normal range than in patients with higher baseline levels. Serum and salivary cortisol and plasma corticotropin levels decreased, and clinical signs and symptoms of Cushing's disease diminished. Pasireotide was associated with hyperglycemia-related adverse events in 118 of 162 patients; other adverse events were similar to those associated with other somatostatin analogues. Despite declines in cortisol levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels increased soon after treatment initiation and then stabilized; treatment with a glucose-lowering medication was initiated in 74 of 162 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The significant decrease in cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's disease who received pasireotide supports its potential use as a targeted treatment for corticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00434148.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Newell-Price J.,University of Sheffield | Findling J.W.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Gu F.,Peking Union Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Objective Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) sampling is commonly used to evaluate Cushing's syndrome. Because there are few data on UFC variability in patients with active Cushing's disease, we analysed baseline UFC in a large patient cohort with moderate-to-severe Cushing's disease and assessed whether variability correlates with hypercortisolism severity. These data will help clinicians establish the minimum number of UFC samples required to obtain reliable data. Design Observational study (enrolment phase of Phase III study). Methods Patients (n = 152) with persistent/recurrent or de novo Cushing's disease and mean UFC (mUFC) ≥1·5×ULN (normal: 30-145 nmol/24 h) were included. Mean UFC level was calculated from four 24-h urine samples collected over 2 weeks. Results Over 600 24-h UFC samples were analysed. The mUFC levels of samples 1 and 2 and samples 3 and 4 were 1000 nmol/24 h (SD 1872) and 940 nmol/24 h (SD 2148), respectively; intrapatient coefficient of variation (CV) was 38% for mUFC. The intrapatient CV using all four samples was 52% (95% CI: 48-56). The intrapatient CV was 51% (95% CI: 44-58) for samples 1 and 2, 49% (95% CI: 43-56) for samples 3 and 4 and 54% (95% CI: 49-59) for samples 1, 2 and 3. Variability in mUFC increased as UFC levels increased. There were no correlations between UFC and clinical features of hypercortisolism. Conclusions There is intrapatient variability of approximately 50% in 24-h UFC measurements, which is relevant to targets set to estimate any treatment effect. Analysing more than two 24-h collection periods in individual patients does not result in a relevant decrease in variability. Interestingly, UFC levels did not correlate with hypercortisolism severity. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Manolopoulou J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Alami Y.,IDS Ltd. | Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Petersenn S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Large variability exists among different growth hormone (GH) assays owing to differences in calibration, antibody specificity, isoform recognition, and interference from GH binding protein (GHBP). The GH receptor antagonist Pegvisomant presents a new challenge because Pegvisomant interferes with many GH assays. A recent consensus conference established criteria for standardization and evaluation of GH assays. Following consensus recommendations, we developed a new GH assay on an automated analyzer (IDS-iSYS, Immunodiagnostic Systems). METHODS: A monoclonal antibody not cross-reacting with Pegvisomant was combined with a monoclonal antibody specific for 22-kD GH. Isoform specificity and interference from GHBP was tested and compared to that seen in 2 existing automated GH assays (Siemens Immulite, Diasorin Liaison). We also compared GH concentrations measured by the 3 assays for healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly receiving different treatments. Using the iSYS assay, we also established nadir GH values during oral glucose load and analyzed changes in endogenous GH during Pegvisomant treatment. RESULTS: Analytical and functional sensitivities were 0.01 μg/L and 0.04 μg/L, with a dynamic range from 0.04 to 100 μg/L. Intraassay CVs were 2%-4%, whereas interassay CVs were 5%-7% at GH concentrations between 1.7 and 27.5 μg/L. The assay was specific for 22-kD GH and not affected by GHBP. The presence of Pegvisomant, which leads to a negative bias on the Immulite and dramatic overestimation of GH on the Liaison, had no impact on the iSYS GH assay. CONCLUSIONS: The new assay fulfils recent consensus recommendations and presents a useful new tool for reliable measurement of GH. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Source

Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Petersenn S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Fleseriu M.,University of Oregon
Pituitary | Year: 2015

Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first line therapy in Cushing’s disease, but a large number of patients will not be cured or disease will recur over time. Repeat pituitary surgery, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation have limitations with respect to efficacy and/or side effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for an effective medical treatment. The studies reviewed here suggest a role for pituitary-directed therapies, applying multireceptor ligand somatostatin analogs like pasireotide or second-generation dopamine agonists. Retinoic acid has been also studied in a small prospective study. These compounds target ACTH-secretion at the pituitary level and possibly inhibit corticotrope proliferation. Specific side effects of these compounds need to be considered, especially when used as long-term therapy. These novel approaches could provide options for treatment of patients in whom surgery has failed or is not possible, and while awaiting effects of radiation therapy. Preoperative use to decrease cortisol excess, potentially reducing perioperative complications, needs to be further studied. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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