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Shrimali G.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Slaski X.,Stanford University | Thurber M.C.,Stanford University | Zerriffi H.,University of British Columbia
Energy Policy

Burning of biomass for cooking is associated with health problems and climate change impacts. Many previous efforts to disseminate improved stoves - primarily by governments and NGOs - have not been successful. Based on interviews with 12 organizations selling improved biomass stoves, we assess the results to date and future prospects of commercial stove operations in India. Specifically, we consider how the ability of these businesses to achieve scale and become self-sustaining has been influenced by six elements of their respective business models: design, customers targeted, financing, marketing, channel strategy, and organizational characteristics. The two companies with the most stoves in the field shared in common generous enterprise financing, a sophisticated approach to developing a sales channel, and many person-years of management experience in marketing and operations. And yet the financial sustainability of improved stove sales to households remains far from assured. The only company in our sample with demonstrated profitability is a family-owned business selling to commercial rather than household customers. The stove sales leader is itself now turning to the commercial segment to maintain flagging cash flow, casting doubt on the likelihood of large positive impacts on health from sales to households in the near term. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Raghavan R.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Shrimali G.,Monterey Institute of International Studies
Forest Policy and Economics

Contrary to trends in many countries, forest cover in India has increased in recent times. Using a step wise time series cross section regression analysis on state-level panel data over 1990-2008, we examine two hypotheses to explain this increase: Forest cover is influenced by policies as well as the timber market. While appropriately controlling for economic and structural influences, we find that implementation of joint forest management is positively correlated with forest cover, implying that community participation is key to effective afforestation; and the timber and fuel wood market demands are positively correlated with forest cover, implying that demand-driven growth is conducive to forest growth, especially in presence of complementary policies. Our results suggest that policies, by supporting individual interests, can increase forest cover more effectively. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Harish S.M.,Carnegie Mellon University | Raghavan S.V.,University of British Columbia | Kandlikar M.,University of British Columbia | Shrimali G.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions
Energy for Sustainable Development

There are many advantages of solar photovoltaic technology in providing lighting for rural homes-scalability, minimal maintenance and well developed business models. This study seeks to study the impact of the transition from Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) to Light Emitting Diodes based lights (LED) on the solar home lighting system market. Changing the lighting fixtures from CFL to LED would lead to the requirement of smaller panels and batteries and consequently, a reduction in prices. Would this reduction significantly increase the adoption of these systems? Would the requirement for financing or government support change? To understand this changing landscape of the rural solar lighting industry, this study analyses the current products, distribution network, and operations of seven diverse solar firms operating in different parts of India. Four of these firms exclusively make LED based products - lanterns and small home lighting systems - and the rest have some LED based systems in their portfolio. There are several factors to be considered, product configuration, luminosity, price effects and service and maintenance. While the price reduction is found to be significant (about 20%), affordability may still remain an issue for poorer households. LED lighting allows for the introduction of plug and play systems, and reduces institutional requirements for installation and maintenance. © 2013 International Energy Initiative. Source

Shrimali G.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Rohra S.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is one of India's key policy and scientific experiments. The programme is audacious in its goal, deterministic in its approach, disjointed in its design, and challenged in its governance. Yet it holds the promise of transforming the lives of millions of Indians. This paper provides an analysis of the JNNSM in the Indian institutional context - in particular, in the context of the power sector reforms. It highlights the barriers to development and diffusion that have been dismantled though the use of appropriate policy tools, and those that still remain. It identifies the policy implementation challenges likely to be encountered in the case of grid-connected, roof-top, and off-grid applications as well as in the areas of research, development and technology transfer. Finally, it discusses a series of high-level approaches based on global best practices to address these remaining challenges. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Singh P.V.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Tatambhotla A.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Kalvakuntla R.,Center for Emerging Markets Solutions | Chokshi M.,Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi
BMJ Open

Objective: To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design: Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results: The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions: The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers. Source

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